(Redirected from Status Epilepticus)
- Definitions have varied, but status epilepticus should be considered in a patient seizing for 5-10min despite initial treatments or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline mental status. (Previous definitions used a 30-minute time limit)
- Overall mortality is high (22%)
- Divided in generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE)
- NCSE presents as an alteration in behavior associated with subtle changes (as twitching, blinking, eye deviation, aphasia, somatosensory findings) and continuous epileptiform discharges on EEG
- Epileptic seizure
- Non-epileptic seizure
- Brain abscess
- Intracranial hemorrhage
- Alcohol withdrawal
- Benzodiazepine withdrawal
- Barbiturate withdrawal
- Baclofen withdrawal
- Metabolic abnormalities: hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic failure, uremia
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
- Impact seizure (head trauma)
- Acute hydrocephalus
- Arteriovenous malformation
- Seizure with VP shunt
- Toxic ingestion (amphetamines, anticholinergics, cocaine, INH, organophosphates, TCA, salicylates, lithium, phenothiazines, bupropion, camphor, clozapine, cyclosporine, fluoroquinolones, imipenem, lead, lidocaine, metronidazole, synthetic cannabinoids, theophylline, Starfruit)
- Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (pseudoseizure)
- Intracranial mass
- Hyperventilation syndrome
- Migraine headache
- Movement disorders
- Post-hypoxic myoclonus (Status myoclonicus)
- Clinical diagnosis
- Consider emergent CT head, plus/minus LP
- Consider the following labs:
- Repeat glucose checks
- Electrolytes including Na, Ca, Mg
- Tox screen
- Serum beta HCG
- Anti-seizure medication levels
- Protect patient from injury
- If possible, place patient in left lateral position to reduce risk of aspiration
- Do not place bite block!
- Jaw thrust, a NPA and oxygen may be required
- An IV line should be placed
- Benzodiazepine (Initial treatment of choice)
- Secondary medications
- ESETT trial compared second line antiseizure medications and they all are equally efficacious. Therefor may be best to use the one with least side effects  which is Levetiracetam
- Levetiracetam IV 60 mg/kg, max 4500 mg/dose, or 1500 mg oral load (preferred in pregnancy)
- Phenytoin IV 18 mg/kg at ≤ 50 mg/min
- Fosphenytoin IV 20-30 mg/kg at 150 mg/min (may also be given IM)
- Contraindicated in pts w/ 2nd or 3rd degree AV block
- Avoid phenytoin or fosphenytoin in suspected toxicology case due to sodium channel blockade
- Valproic acid IV 20-40 mg/kg at 5 mg/kg/min, max 3000 mg (avoid in pregnancy)
- Refractory medications
- Propofol 2-5mg/kg, then infusion of 2-10mg/kg/hr OR
- Midazolam 0.2mg/kg, then infusion of 0.05-2mg/kg/hr OR
- Ketamine loading dose 0.5 to 3 mg/kg, followed by infusion of 0.3 to 4 mg/kg/hr
- Lacosamide IV 400 mg IV loading dose over 15 min, then maintenance dose of 200 mg q12hrs PO/IV
- Phenobarbital IV 15-20 mg/kg at 50-75 mg/min
- Then continuous infusion at 0.5-4.0 mg/kg/hr
- Dose adjusted to suppression-burst pattern on continuous EEG
- Consider consulting anesthesia for inhaled anesthetics (potent anticonvulsants)
- Secondary causes of seizure (e.g. hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, INH toxicity, ecclampsia)
- Nonconvulsive seizures or status epilepticus - get EEG
- Admit to ICU or intermediate level of monitored care depending on etiology, treatments and respiratory status
- Epilepsy Foundation of America. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus. Recommendations of the Epilepsy Foundation of America's Working Group on Status Epilepticus. JAMA. 1993 Aug 18. 270(7):854-9
- Lowenstein DH, Cloyd J. Out-of-hospital treatment of status epilepticus and prolonged seizures. Epilepsia. 2007. 48 Suppl 8:96-8
- Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1993;34(4):592.
- Martindale JL, Goldstein JN, Pallin DJ. Emergency department seizure epidemiology. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2011 Feb;29(1):15-27.
- Brodie MJ. Status epilepticus in adults. Lancet. 1990 Sep 1; 336(8714):551-2.
- Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338:970-976
- Glauser T, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: report of the guideline committee of the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsy Curr. 2016; 16(1):48-61.
- McMullan J, Sasson C, Pancioli A, Silbergleit R: Midazolam versus diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children and young adults: A meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17:575-582
- Kapur J, Elm J, Chamberlain J, et al. Randomized Trial of Three Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(22):2103-2113. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1905795
- PulmCrit- All 2nd line conventional anti-epileptics are equally good… or equally bad?
- Legriel S, Oddo M, and Brophy GM. What’s new in refractory status epilepticus? Intensive Care Medicine. 2016:1-4.
- Legros B et al. Intravenous lacosamide in refractory seizure clusters and status epilepticus: comparison of 200 and 400 mg loading doses. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Jun;20(3):484-8.
- Pugin D et al. Is pentobarbital safe and efficacious in the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus: a cohort study. Critical Care 2014. DOI: 10.1186/cc13883.
- Mirsattari SM et al. Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with inhalational anesthetic agents isoflurane and desflurane. Arch Neurol. 2004 Aug;61(8):1254-9.