Levofloxacin

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General

  • Type: Fluoroquinolone
  • Dosage Forms: PO, IV, Inhaled
  • Common Trade Names: Levaquin

Adult Dosing

Pneumonia

  • Community acquired
    • 750mg PO/IV q24h x 5 days
  • Nosocomial
    • 750 gm PO/IV q24h x 7-14 days

Prostatitis

  • 500 MG PO/IV q24h x 28 days

Pyelonephritis

  • 750mg PO/IV q24h x 5 days

Skin infection

  • Uncomplicated
    • 500mg PO/IV q24h x 7-10 days
  • Complicated
    • 750mg PO/IV q24h x 7-14 days

UTI

  • Uncomplicated
    • 250mg PO/IV q24h x 3days
  • Complicated
    • 750mg PO/IV q24h x 5 days

Pediatric Dosing

Pneumonia (Community acquired)

  • 6 months - 4 years old
    • 16-20mg/kg/day IV or PO, divided q12h x 10 days
  • 5-16 years old
    • 8-10mg/kg/day IV or PO, divided q12h x 10 days

Special Populations

  • Pregnancy Rating: C
  • Lactation: Probably Safe
  • Renal Dosing
    • Adult
      • If usual dose is 750mg qd
        • CrCl 20-49: 750mg q48h
        • CrCl 10-19: 750mg x1 then 500mg q48h
        • CrCl <10: Not defined
        • HD/PD: No supplement
      • If usual dose is 500mg qd
        • CrCl 20-49: 500mg x1, then 250mg q24h
        • CrCl 10-19: 500mg x1, then 250mg q48h
        • CrCl <10: Not defined
        • HD/PD: No supplement
      • If usual dose is 250mg qd
        • CrCl 10-19: 250mg q48h
        • CrCl <10: Not defined
        • HD/PD: No supplement
    • Pediatric
      • CrCl 10-29: Give q24h
      • CrCl <10: Give q48h
      • HD/PD: No supplement
  • Hepatic Dosing: not defined

Contraindications

Adverse Reactions

Serious

Common

Pharmacology

  • Half-life: 6-8 h
  • Metabolism: CYP450
  • Excretion: Urine
  • Mechanism of Action: Bactericidal, inhibits DNA gyrase / Topoisomerase IV

Antibiotic Sensitivities[1]

Group Organism Sensitivity
Gram Positive Strep. Group A, B, C, G S
Strep. Pneumoniae S
Viridans strep S
Strep. anginosus gp S
Enterococcus faecalis S
Enterococcus faecium R
MSSA S
MRSA R
CA-MRSA I
Staph. Epidermidis S
C. jeikeium X1
L. monocytogenes S
Gram Negatives N. gonorrhoeae I
N. meningitidis S
Moraxella catarrhalis S
H. influenzae S
E. coli S
Klebsiella sp S
E. coli/Klebsiella ESBL+ S
E coli/Klebsiella KPC+ R
Enterobacter sp, AmpC neg S
Enterobacter sp, AmpC pos S
Serratia sp S
Serratia marcescens X1
Salmonella sp S
Shigella sp S
Proteus mirabilis S
Proteus vulgaris S
Providencia sp. S
Morganella sp. S
Citrobacter freundii S
Citrobacter diversus S
Citrobacter sp. S
Aeromonas sp S
Acinetobacter sp. I
Pseudomonas aeruginosa I
Burkholderia cepacia X1
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia I
Yersinia enterocolitica S
Francisella tularensis X1
Brucella sp. X1
Legionella sp. S
Pasteurella multocida S
Haemophilus ducreyi X1
Vibrio vulnificus X1
Misc Chlamydophila sp S
Mycoplasm pneumoniae S
Rickettsia sp X1
Mycobacterium avium X1
Anaerobes Actinomyces X1
Bacteroides fragilis R
Prevotella melaninogenica S
Clostridium difficile R
Clostridium (not difficile) S
Fusobacterium necrophorum X1
Peptostreptococcus sp. S

Key

  • S susceptible/sensitive (usually)
  • I intermediate (variably susceptible/resistant)
  • R resistant (or not effective clinically)
  • S+ synergistic with cell wall antibiotics
  • U sensitive for UTI only (non systemic infection)
  • X1 no data
  • X2 active in vitro, but not used clinically
  • X3 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for Group A strep pharyngitis or infections due to E. faecalis
  • X4 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for strep pneumonia

See Also

References

  1. Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2014