Glomerulonephritis

Background

Causes of Glomerulonephritis

Clincal Presentation

Differential Diagnosis

Hematuria

  • Urologic (lower tract)
    • Any location
    • Ureter(s)
      • Dilatation of stricture
    • Bladder
      • Transitional cell carcinoma
      • Vascular lesions or malformations
      • Chemical or radiation cystitis
    • Prostate
    • Urethra
      • Stricture
      • Diverticulosis
      • Foreign body
      • Endometriosis (cyclic hematuria with menstrual pain)
  • Renal (upper tract)
    • Glomerular
    • Nonglomerular
      • Interstitial nephritis
      • Pyelonephritis
      • Papillary necrosis: sickle cell disease, diabetes, NSAID use
      • Vascular: arteriovenous malformations, emboli, aortocaval fistula
      • Malignancy
      • Polycystic kidney disease
      • Medullary sponge disease
      • Tuberculosis
      • Renal trauma
  • Hematologic
  • Myoglobinuria - positive blood, no RBCs: rhabdomyolysis
  • Hemoglobinuria - positive blood, no RBCs
  • Miscellaneous
    • Eroding abdominal aortic aneurysm
    • Malignant hypertension
    • Loin pain–hematuria syndrome
    • Renal vein thrombosis
    • Exercise-induced hematuria
    • Cantharidin (Spanish fly) poisoning
    • Stings/bites by insects/reptiles having venom with anticoagulant properties
    • Schistosomiasis
    • Sickle Cell Trait

Evaluation

Work-Up

  • Urinalysis
  • CBC
  • Chemistry
  • Albumin (often reduced in acute glomerulonephritis)
  • C3, C4, ASO


Management

Defer to nephrologist

Disposition

Coordinate with nephrologist

References