Salter-Harris fractures

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Background

  • The higher the classification, the higher the likelihood of growth abnormalities
  • If physis fracture missed may lead to premature closure and bone growth arrest
  • It was previously taught that ligaments are stronger than bones in kids (and fractures were more likely than sprains), however newer studies (to date in ankles) contradict that assumption[1]

Mnemonic

  • S 1 - Slipped (thru epiphysis)
  • A 2 - Above (epiphysis with metaphysis fracture)
  • L 3 - Lower (thru epiphysis)
  • T 4 - Through (epinephrine and meta)
  • R 5 - Rammed (growth plate crushed)

Fracture Chart

Type I (Slip) II (Above) III (Below) IV (Through) V (Crush)
Fracture Location hypertrophic zone of physis (epiphysis separates from metaphysis) Through physis and out through piece of metaphyseal bone Intra-articular Starts at articular surface and extends through epiphysis, physis, metaphysics Physis compression
Pathophysiology Growing cells remain on the epiphysis in continuity with blood supply Growing cells remain on the epiphysis in continuity with blood supply fracture extends from epiphysis through physis
Epidemiology Occurs mostly in infants and todlers Most common type of fracture Typically occurs at knee or ankle
Prognosis Good Good Moderate Moderate Highest chance of growth arrest

Clinical Features

  • Trauma with point tenderness over a non-closed (pediatric) physis

Differential Diagnosis

  • Sprain
  • Contusion
  • Other fracture

Evaluation

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Salter Harris Types

Type 1 (Slip)

  • Suspect if point tenderness over a physis
  • X-ray findings are subtle (epiphyseal displacement) or absent (clinical diagnosis)

Type 2 (Above)

  • X-ray shows triangular fragment of metaphysis with out injury to epiphysis

Type 3 (Below)

  • X-ray shows epiphyseal fragment not associated with etaphyseal fracture
  • Greater the displacement greater chance of vascular supply compromise

Type 4 (Both)

  • fracture starts at articular surface and extends through epiphysis, physis, metaphysics

Type 5 (Crush)

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Salter-Harris IV fracture of the distal tibia with associated distal fibular fracture that does not involve the physis
  • X-ray shows physis compression fracture
    • May confuse for Type 1 injury
    • X-ray findings may be minimal

Management

Type I

  • Most: Splint, ortho follow up
  • Lateral ankle:
    • Removable ankle brace
    • Return to activities as tolerated by pain
    • No ortho followup

Type II

  • Most: Splint, ortho follow up
  • Ankle: Removable ankle brace[2]

Type III-V

  • Splint, ortho consult

Disposition

  • Outpatient

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Blackburn EW, Aronsson DD, Rubright JH, Lisle JW. Ankle fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012; 94(13):1234-1244.
  2. . Boutis K, Willan AR, Babyn P, Narayanan UG, Alman B, Schuh S. A randomized, controlled trial of a removable brace versus casting in children with low-risk ankle fractures. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6): e1256-e1263.