Gatifloxacin

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General

  • Type: Fluoroquinolone
  • Dosage Forms: Ophthalmic solution
  • Common Trade Names: Zymar, Zymaxid

Adult Dosing

  • 0.3% solution, 1 gtt in eye q2h up to 8x/day day 1 and 2, then QID x 5 days
  • 0.5% solution, 1 gtt in eye q2h up to 8x/day first day, then bid-QID x 6 days

Pediatric Dosing

  • > 1 y/o
    • 0.3% solution, 1 gtt in eye q2h up to 8x/day day 1 and 2, then QID x 5 days
    • 0.5% solution, 1 gtt in eye q2h up to 8x/day first day, then bid-QID x 6 days

Special Populations

  • Pregnancy Rating: C
  • Lactation: Safety Unknown
  • Renal Dosing
    • Adult
    • Pediatric
  • Hepatic Dosing
    • Adult
    • Pediatric

Contraindications

  • Allergy to class/drug

Adverse Reactions

Serious

  • Conjunctival hemorrhage
  • Superinfection

Hypersensitivity reaction

Common

  • Conjunctival irritation
  • Ocular irritation
  • Dysgeusia
  • Ocular pain
  • Chemosis
  • Dry eyes
  • Ocular discharge
  • Blepharitis
  • Headache
  • Visual acuity changes

Pharmacology

  • Half-life: N/A (7-14 hours for systemic preparations)
  • Metabolism: Minimal
  • Excretion: N/A (urine for systemic preparations)
  • Mechanism of Action: Bactericidal, inhibits DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV

Antibiotic Sensitivities[1]

Group Organism Sensitivity
Gram Positive Strep. Group A, B, C, G S
Strep. Pneumoniae S
Viridans strep S
Strep. anginosus gp S
Enterococcus faecalis S
Enterococcus faecium I
MSSA S
MRSA I
CA-MRSA I
Staph. Epidermidis S
C. jeikeium X1
L. monocytogenes S
Gram Negatives N. gonorrhoeae I
N. meningitidis S
Moraxella catarrhalis S
H. influenzae S
E. coli S
Klebsiella sp S
E. coli/Klebsiella ESBL+ S
E coli/Klebsiella KPC+ R
Enterobacter sp, AmpC neg S
Enterobacter sp, AmpC pos S
Serratia sp S
Serratia marcescens X1
Salmonella sp S
Shigella sp S
Proteus mirabilis S
Proteus vulgaris S
Providencia sp. S
Morganella sp. S
Citrobacter freundii S
Citrobacter diversus S
Citrobacter sp. S
Aeromonas sp S
Acinetobacter sp. I
Pseudomonas aeruginosa I
Burkholderia cepacia R
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia I
Yersinia enterocolitica S
Francisella tularensis X1
Brucella sp. X1
Legionella sp. S
Pasteurella multocida S
Haemophilus ducreyi X1
Vibrio vulnificus X1
Misc Chlamydophila sp S
Mycoplasm pneumoniae S
Rickettsia sp X1
Mycobacterium avium X1
Anaerobes Actinomyces S
Bacteroides fragilis I
Prevotella melaninogenica S
Clostridium difficile R
Clostridium (not difficile) S
Fusobacterium necrophorum X1
Peptostreptococcus sp. S

Key

  • S susceptible/sensitive (usually)
  • I intermediate (variably susceptible/resistant)
  • R resistant (or not effective clinically)
  • S+ synergistic with cell wall antibiotics
  • U sensitive for UTI only (non systemic infection)
  • X1 no data
  • X2 active in vitro, but not used clinically
  • X3 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for Group A strep pharyngitis or infections due to E. faecalis
  • X4 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for strep pneumonia

See Also

References

  1. Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2014