Deep venous thrombosis

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Background

DVT of right leg
Large DVTof left leg

Clinical Spectrum of Venous thromboembolism

Only 40% of ambulatory ED patients with PE have concomitant DVT[1][2]

Anatomy

Significant risk of PE:

  • Common femoral vein
  • (Superficial) femoral vein
    • (Superficial) femoral vein is part of the deep system, not the superficial system as the name suggests!
  • Popliteal veins

Clinical Features

  • Leg swelling with circumference >3cm more than unaffected side
  • Tenderness over calf muscle
  • Homan's sign - pain during dorsiflexion of foot (SN 60-96% and SP 20-72%)[3]

Differential Diagnosis

Calf pain

Evaluation

ACEP DVTClinical Algorithm
  • Clinical exam
  • Risk stratification for further testing indicated using, e.g. Modified Wells Score

Modified Wells Score

Can be applied for patients whose clinical presentation is concerning for a DVT in order to risk stratify.

  • Active cancer (<6 mo) - 1pt
  • Paralysis, paresis, or immob of extremity - 1pt
  • Bedridden >3 d b/c of symptoms (within 4 wk) - 1pt
  • TTP along deep venous system - 1pt
  • Entire leg swollen - 1pt
  • Unilateral calf swelling >3cm below tibial tuberosity - 1pt
  • Unilateral pitting edema - 1pt
  • Collateral superficial veins (not varicose) - 1pt
  • Previously documented DVT - 1pt
  • Alternative diagnosis as likely or more likely than DVT - (-)2pts

Scoring:

  • A score of 0 or lower → minimal risk - DVT prevalence of 5%. D-dimer testing is safe in this group - negative d-dimer decreases the probability of disease to <1% allowing an ultrasound to be deferred.
  • A score of 1-2 → moderate risk - DVT prevalence of 17%. D-dimer testing still effective and a negative test decreases post-test probability disease to <1%
  • A score of 3 or higher → high risk - DVT prevalence of 17-53% → patients should receive an ultrasound[4]

Management

The distinction between distal and proximal relates to veins below and above the knee respectively.[5] Patients with superficial venous thromboses such as the long saphenous and short saphenous are at risk of developing a DVT, especially in patients who have a history of prior DVT although management with anticoagulation is controversial.[6]

Proximal DVT

Proximal veins are the external iliac, common femoral, greater saphenous, profound femoral, (superficial) femoral vein, popliteal vein

  • If NO phlegmasia cerulea dolens:
  • If phlegmasia cerulea dolens:
    • Consider thrombolytics +/- thrombectomy
    • Anticoagulate with heparin/coumadin x 3 months
  • If anticoagulation contraindicated:

Distal DVT

Distal veins are the anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, gastrocnemius, soleus.

  • Symptomatic
  • Asymptomatic with extension of thrombus toward proximal veins
  • Asymptomatic without extension
    • Discharge with compressive U/S q2 weeks

VTE in Pregnancy[7]

  • Therapeutic LMWH or unfractionated heparin anticoagulation dose in:
    • Antepartum outpatient with multiple prior VTEs or any VTE with high-risk thrombophilia until 6 weeks postpartum
    • Postpartum inpatient with prior unprovoked, estrogen-provoked VTE, or low-risk thrombophilia for duration of admission
  • Lower prophylactic anticoagulation dose in:
    • Antepartum outpatient with prior unprovoked, estrogen-provoked VTE, or low-risk thrombophilia until6 weeks postpartum
    • Patients admitted > 72 hrs, not at high risk for bleeding or imminent delivery
    • Resume 12 hours after C-section and removal of epidural / spinal needle in indicated patients
  • Halt anticoagulation if imminent delivery, C-section, epidural / spinal needle

Recurrent DVT on Therapeutic Anticoagulation

  • Admit patients for vascular surgery and hematologist consult
  • Consider Greenfield IVC filter placement
  • Typically start heparin for additional anticoagulation

Anticoagulation Options

Coumadin Regimen

  • Standard anticoagulation regimen
    • Enoxaparin 1mg/kg q12h 4-5 days
    • Coumadin
      • typical starting dose 5mg/day
      • give 7d supply with first dose in ED
  • GFR <30 and/or potentially requiring reversal
    • Unfractionated Heparin 80 units/kg bolus then 18 units/kg/hour
      • Check PTT after 6hr; adjust infusion to maintain PTT at 1.5-2.5x control
    • Coumadin as above

Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) Regimen

  • Standard
    • Start 15mg PO BID x 21 days, then 20mg PO daily (duration depending on risk factors)
    • No need for initial enoxaparin
  • Renal dosing
    • Check creatinine on all patients prior to initiation
    • CrCl <30 avoid use

Apixaban (Eliquis) Regimen

  • Standard
    • Start 10mg PO BID x 7 days, then 5mg PO BID daily (duration depending on risk factors)
    • No need for initial enoxaparin
  • Renal dosing
    • No dosage adjustments necessary for renal impairment, but CrCl <25 mL/minute were excluded from clinical trials

Contraindications to anticoagulation

Disposition

Discharge

Consider if all of the following are present:

  • Ambulatory
  • Hemodynamically stable
  • Low risk of bleeding in patient
  • Absence of renal failure
  • Able to administer anticoagulation with appropriate monitoring
  • Able to arrange for 2-3 day follow-up

Admit

For any of the following:

  • Iliofemoral DVT
  • Phlegmasia cerulea dolens
  • High risk of bleeding on anticoagulation
  • Significant comorbidities
  • Symptoms of concurrent PE
  • Recent (within 2 weeks) stroke or transient ischemic attack
  • Severe renal dysfunction (GFR < 30)
  • History of heparin sensitivity or Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
  • Weight > 150kg

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Righini M, Le GG, Aujesky D, et al. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by multidetector CT alone or combined with venous ultrasonography of the leg: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2008; 371(9621):1343-1352.
  2. Daniel KR, Jackson RE, Kline JA. Utility of the lower extremity venous ultrasound in the diagnosis and exclusion of pulmonary embolism in outpatients. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 35(6):547-554.
  3. Anand SS, et al. Does this patient have deep vein thrombosis? JAMA. 1998; 279(14):1094-9.
  4. Del Rios M et al. Focus on: Emergency Ultrasound For Deep Vein Thrombosis. ACEP News. March 2009. https://www.acep.org/clinical---practice-management/focus-on--emergency-ultrasound-for-deep-vein-thrombosis/
  5. Gualtiero P. How I treat isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT). Blood 2014 123:1802-1809; doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-10-512616
  6. Litzendorf ME. Satiani B. Superficial Venous thrombosis:disease progression and evolving treatment approaches. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011(7). 569-575
  7. DʼAlton ME et al. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus bundle on venous thromboembolism. Obstet Gynecol 2016 Oct; 128:688.