Ottawa ankle rules

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Background

  • Nearly 100% sensitive[1]
  • 98.5% sensitive in the pediatric population[2]
  • Can reduce ED utilization of xrays[3]

Criteria

Ottawa ankle rule

Ottawa ankle rule

Ankle x-ray needed if:

  • Pain near the maleoli AND
  • Inability to bear weight immediately and in the ED (4 steps) OR
  • Tenderness at posterior edge or tip of lateral malleolus OR
  • Tenderness at posterior edge or tip of medial malleolus

Ottawa foot rules

Ottawa foot rules

Foot x-ray series needed if:

  • Pain in the midfoot AND
  • Inability to bear weight both immediately and in the ED (4 steps) OR
  • Tenderness at the navicular OR
  • Tenderness at the base of the 5th metatarsal

Exceptions

  1. Age <6 or >55
  2. Only for blunt trauma mechanism
  3. Does not apply to subacute/chronic injuries
  4. Does not apply to injuries of the hindfoot or forefoot

External Links

MDCalc - Ottawa Ankle Rules

See Also

Video

References

  1. Bachmann LM, Kolb E, Koller MT, et al. Accuracy of Ottawa ankle rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and mid-foot: systematic review. BMJ. 2003; 326(7386):417.
  2. Dowling S, Spooner CH, Liang Y, et al. Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and midfoot in children: a meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16(4):277-87.
  3. Stiell, IG, et al. Implementation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules. JAMA. 1994; 271:827-832.