Timolol

Administration

  • Type: Beta blocker
  • Dosage Forms:
  • Routes of Administration: topical (ophthalmic), oral
  • Common Trade Names:

Adult Dosing

  • 0.25% to 0.5%: 1 drop in affected eye 1-2 times daily
  • 10-30mg PO BID (for systemic beta-blocker effects)

Pediatric Dosing

  • 0.25% to 0.5%: 1 drop in affected eye daily

Special Populations

Contraindications

  • Allergy to class/drug
  • Oral drug contraindicated in:
    • 2nd or 3rd degree AV block, bradycardia
    • Heart failure, cardiogenic shock
    • Active asthma, severe COPD

Adverse Reactions

Serious

  • Dysrhythmia, myocardial infarction
  • Bronchospasm

Common

  • Bradyarrythmia, hypotension, heart failure, angina
  • Rash, pruritus
  • Nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
  • Muscle cramps
  • Dizziness, headache, confusion, fatigue
  • Blurred vision, burning sensation in eye, dry eyes

Pharmacology

  • Half-life: 4h (oral)
  • Metabolism: hepatic, via CYP2D6
  • Excretion: mostly renal

Mechanism of Action

  • Nonselective beta-1 and beta-2 antagonist
  • Decreases intraocular pressure by increasing outflow and decreasing formation of aqueous humor

Comments

See Also

References

Authors:

Claire