Template:Cholinergic Toxicity Treatment
- Providers should wear appropriate PPE during decontamination.
- Neoprene or nitrile gloves and gown (latex and vinyl are ineffective)
- Dispose of all clothes in biohazard container
- Wash patient with soap and water
- IVF, O2, Monitor
- Aggressive airway management is of utmost importance.
- Dosing with atropine and pralidoxime are time dependent and provides ability to reverse symptoms while awaiting agent metabolism
- For exposure to nerve agents, manufactured IM autoinjectors are available for rapid administration:
- Mark 1
- Contains 2 separate cartridges: atropine 2 mg + 2-PAM 600 mg
- Being phased out with newer kits
- Single autoinjector containing both medications
- Same doses as Mark 1: atropine 2 mg + 2-PAM 600 mg
- Mark 1
- Competitively blocks muscarinic sites (does nothing for nicotinic-related muscle paralysis)
- May require massive dosage (hundreds of milligrams)
- Adult: Initial bolus of 2-6mg IV; titrate by doubling dose q5-30m until tracheobronchial secretions controlled
- Once secretions controlled → start IV gtt 0.02-0.08 mg/kg/hr
- Child: 0.05-0.1mg/kg (at least 0.1mg) IV; repeat bolus q2-30m until tracheobronchial secretions controlled
- Once secretions controlled → start IV gtt 0.025 mg/kg/hr
- AKA 2-PAM
- For Organophosphate poisoning only - reactivates AChE by removing phosphate group → oxime-OP complex then excreted by kidneys.
- This must be done before "aging" occurs - conformational change that makes OP bond to AChE irreversible
- Pralidoxime can actually bind and inhibit AChE once all AChE enzymes have aged, and can make the toxicity worse
- Window to aging depends on the agent, and is a matter of debate, but pralidoxime within 1-2 hours of exposure is the goal
- Adult: 1-2gm IV over 15-30min; repeat in 1 hour if needed or 50 mg/hr infusion.
- Child: 20-40mg/kg IV over 20min; repeat in 1 hour if needed or 10-20 mg/kg/hr infusion.