Template:Cholinergic Toxicity Treatment

Decontamination

  • Providers should wear appropriate PPE during decontamination.
    • Neoprene or nitrile gloves and gown (latex and vinyl are ineffective)
  • Dispose of all clothes in biohazard container
  • Wash patient with soap and water

Supportive Care

  • IVF, O2, Monitor
  • Aggressive airway management is of utmost importance.
    • Intubation often needed due to significant respiratory secretions / bronchospasm.
    • Use nondepolarizing agent (Rocuronium or Vecuronium)
    • Succinylcholine is absolutely contraindicated

Antidotes

  • Dosing with atropine and pralidoxime are time dependent and provides ability to reverse symptoms while awaiting agent metabolism
  • For exposure to nerve agents, manufactured IM autoinjectors are available for rapid administration:
    • Mark 1
      • Contains 2 separate cartridges: atropine 2 mg + 2-PAM 600 mg
      • Being phased out with newer kits
    • DuoDote
      • Single autoinjector containing both medications
      • Same doses as Mark 1: atropine 2 mg + 2-PAM 600 mg

Antidotes

Atropine

  • Competitively blocks muscarinic sites (does nothing for nicotinic-related muscle paralysis)
  • May require massive dosage (hundreds of milligrams)
  • Dosing[1]
  • Adult: Initial bolus of 2-6mg IV; titrate by doubling dose q5-30m until tracheobronchial secretions controlled
    • Once secretions controlled → start IV gtt 0.02-0.08 mg/kg/hr
    • Child: 0.05-0.1mg/kg (at least 0.1mg) IV; repeat bolus q2-30m until tracheobronchial secretions controlled
    • Once secretions controlled → start IV gtt 0.025 mg/kg/hr

Pralidoxime

  • AKA 2-PAM
  • For Organophosphate poisoning only - reactivates AChE by removing phosphate group → oxime-OP complex then excreted by kidneys.
    • This must be done before "aging" occurs - conformational change that makes OP bond to AChE irreversible[2]
    • Pralidoxime can actually bind and inhibit AChE once all AChE enzymes have aged, and can make the toxicity worse
    • Window to aging depends on the agent, and is a matter of debate, but pralidoxime within 1-2 hours of exposure is the goal
  • Dosing[1]
    • Adult: 1-2gm IV over 15-30min; repeat in 1 hour if needed or 50 mg/hr infusion.
    • Child: 20-40mg/kg IV over 20min; repeat in 1 hour if needed or 10-20 mg/kg/hr infusion.
  • 1.0 1.1 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Case Studies in Environmental Medicine, Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Including Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). PDF Accessed 06/21/15
  • Eddleston M, Szinicz L, Eyer P, Buckley, N (2002) Oximes in Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. QJM. 95(5): 275–283.