Gram negative bacteria

(Redirected from Gram negative)

Cocci

Aerobic

Anaerobic

  • Veillonella spp

Rods (Bacilli)

Aerobic

Anaerobic

  • Bacteroides spp,
  • Fusobacterium spp,
  • Prevotella spp.

^Serratia and Citrobacter spp can appear initially as non-lactose fermenting due to slow fermentation

Interpretations of Key Phrases

  • “Gram negative coccobacilli” may suggest Haemophilus species
  • “Lactose-positive gram negative rods” may suggest Enterobacteriaceae, such as E. coli, Klebsiella, or Enterobacter spp
  • “Lactose-negative gram negative rods” may suggest Pseudomonas

Gram Negative Antibiogram

Category Organism N. gonorrhoeae N. meningitidis Moraxella catarrhalis H. influenzae E. coli Klebsiella sp E. coli/Klebsiella ESBL+ E coli/Klebsiella KPC+ Enterobacter sp, AmpC neg Enterobacter sp, AmpC pos Serratia sp Serratia marcescens Salmonella sp Shigella sp Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Providencia sp. Morganella sp. Citrobacter freundii Citrobacter diversus Citrobacter sp. Aeromonas sp Acinetobacter sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burkholderia cepacia Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Yersinia enterocolitica Francisella tularensis Brucella sp. Legionella sp. Pasteurella multocida Haemophilus ducreyi Vibrio vulnificus
Penicillins Penicillin G R S R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R S S X1
Penicillin V R R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Anti-Staphylocccal Penicillins Methicillin R R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R R X1 X1
Nafcillin/Oxacillin R R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R R X1 X1
Cloxacillin/Diclox. R R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R R X1 X1
Amino-Penicillins AMP/Amox R S R I I R R R R R R X1 I I S R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R S R X1
Amox-Clav S S S S S S R R R R R X1 S S S S S I R R R S R R R R I X1 X1 R S S X1
AMP-Sulb S S S S S S R R R R R X1 S S S S S S R R R S S R R R I X1 X1 R S S X1
Anti-Pseudomonal Penicillins Ticarcillin X2 S R I I R R R S S R X1 S S S S S S S S S S R S R X1 I X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Ticar-Clav X2 S S S S S R R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S X1 S S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Pip-Tazo X2 S S S S S R R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S X1 I X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Piperacillin X2 S I I S S R R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S R S X1 I S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Carbapenems Doripenem X2 S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S I R S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Ertapenem X2 S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S R R R R X1 X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Imipenem X2 S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S R R S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Meropenem X2 S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S S R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Aztreonam S S S S S S R R S S S X1 X1 S S S S S S S S S R S R R S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Fluroquinolones Ciprofloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S R R S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
Ofloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I I R R S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
Pefloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S X1 X1 X1 X1 R S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
Levofloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I I X1 I S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
Moxifloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I I R I S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
Gemifloxacin I X1 S S S S S R S S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 I X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 S X1 X1 X1
Gatifloxacin I S S S S S S R S S S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I I R I S X1 X1 S S X1 X1
1st G Cephalo Cefazolin S R I S S S R R R R R X1 X1 X1 S R R R R R R R R R R R R X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
2nd G. Cephalo Cefotetan I I S S S S R R I R S X1 X1 X1 S S S S R I I S R R R R I X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Cefoxitin I I S S S S R R R R R X1 X1 X1 S S S S R I I I R R R R I X1 X1 R X1 S X1
Cefuroxime I S S S S S R R I R R X1 X1 X1 S S R I R I I S R R R R I X1 X1 R S X1 X1
3rd/4th G. Cephalo Cefotaxime I S S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S S S S S R R I R S X1 X1 R S S X1
Cefizoxime I I S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S R S S S R R I R S X1 X1 R S S X1
CefTRIAXone I S S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S S S S S R R I R S X1 X1 R S S X1
Ceftaroline I S S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S X1 S S S X1 R R R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
CefTAZidime I I S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S R S S S I S S I I X1 X1 R X1 S X1
Cefepime I S S S S S R R S R S X1 S S S S S S S S S S I S I R S X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Oral 1st G. Cephalo Cefadroxil R R R X1 S S R R R R R X1 R R S R R R R R X1 X1 R R R R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Cephalexin R R R R S S R R R R R X1 R R S R R R R R R X1 R R R R X1 X1 X1 R R X1 X1
Oral 2nd G. Cephalo Cefaclor/Loracarbef I I I S S S R R R R R X1 X1 X1 S R R R R R I X1 R R R R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Cefproxil I I S S S S R R R R R X1 X1 X1 S R R R R R R X1 R R R R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Cefuroxime axetil I I S S S S R R R R R X1 X1 X1 S R S I R X1 I X1 R R R R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Oral 3rd G. Cephalo Cefixime S I S S S S R R R R I X1 S S S S S R R X1 S S R R R R S X1 X1 R S S X1
Ceftibuten I I S S S S R R I R I X1 S S S S S R R S S S R R S R S X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1
Cefpodox/Cefdinir/Cefditoren S X1 S S S S R R R R R X1 S S S I X1 R R X1 S X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R S X1 X1
Aminoglycosides Gentamicin R R S S S S S R S S X1 S X1 S X1 S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R S R R S S S+ X1 X1 X1 I
Tobramycin R R S S S S S R S S X1 S X1 S X1 S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R S R R S S S+ X1 X1 X1 I
Amikacin R R S S S S S R S S X1 S X1 S X1 S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 I S R R S S S+ X1 X1 X1 I
Chloramphenicol S S S S S I I R R R X1 R S S X1 I X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R S S S S S X1 X1 X2 X2
Clindamycin R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 R X1 X1 X2 X1
Macrolides Erythromycin I X2 I I R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 R S X1 S X1
Azithromycin I X2 S S R R R R R R X1 R I I X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 R S X1 S X1
Clarithromycin I X1 S S R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 R S X1 X1 X1
Ketolide Telithromycin X2 X2 S S R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 R X2 X1 X1 X1
Tetracyclines Doxycycline I S S S S I I R R R X1 R I I X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R X2 R S S X2 X1 R S+
Minocycline I S S S S I I R R R X1 R I I X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 S R I R R X1 S X2 X1 R S+
Glycylcycline Tigecycline X2 X1 S S S S S S S S X1 S S S X1 I X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 I R I S X1 X1 X1 X2 X1 X1 X1
Daptomycin R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R R R R X1 R R
Glyco/Lipoclycopeptides Vancomycin R R X1 X1 R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R X1 X1 R X1 X1 R X1
Teicoplanin R R X1 X1 R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1
Telavancin R R X1 X1 R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1
Fusidic Acid S S X1 X1 R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R X1 X1 I X1 X1 R
Trimethoprim R I X1 I S I I R I I X1 R I I X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R S R X1 X1 X2 S X1 R X1
TMP-SMX I X2 S I I I I R X1 X1 X1 I I I X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 I R S S S S X2 S X1 I X1
Urinary Agents Nitrofurantoin S X1 X1 X1 S I X1 R I I X1 R S S X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1
Fosfomycin X1 X1 X1 X1 S S S S S S X1 S S X1 X1 S X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1
Other Rifampin X2 S S S R R R I R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R X1 X1 S S+ X1 X1 X1 X1
Metronidazole R R R R R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R R R R X1 R R
Quinupristin dalfoppristin X2 R S I R R R R R R X1 X1 R R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1
Linezolid X1 R I I R R R R R R X1 R R R X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 R R R R R R R X1 X1 X1 X1
Colistimethate R R X1 X1 S S S S S S X1 R X1 X1 X1 R X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 S S R I X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1

Table Overview

See Also

References

Authors:

Ross Donaldson