Mostly an issue with TPN, risk of death.
When a severely malnourished patient is given glucose, the following cascade of events takes place:
- Insulin is released
- this stimulates drive to produce ATP
- As ATP is produced, phosphorus is depleted
- As ATP is produced, the cellular Na/K ATPase is activated, leading to transcellular movement of potassium and eventually other electrolytes, including magnesium, phosphorus and calcium into the cell.
- this leads to hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia.
- Metabolic acidosis also develops.
- Electrolyte abnormalities can cause prolonged QTc
- Rapid phosphorus depletion can lead to hemolysis, hypotension, altered mental status.
- Fluid overload, CHF
- Altered mental status
- Symptomatic from hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia
- Fluid overload
- Insulin secretion
- Loss of myocardium
- Na absorption
- Mineral Depletion:
- Glucose Intolerance
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- 1st wk
- Long QT
- Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia
- Metabolic acidosis
- ECG: May cause prolonged QTc
- Bhraonain, Sinead, et al. “Chronic malnutrition may in fact be an acute emergency.” The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2013, Vol 44, issue 1, pages 72-74
- Bjelakovic, Goran, et al. “Antioxidant Supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases.” Sao Paula Med J 2015; 133(2):164-165.