GI antibiotics

Appendicitis

Coverage should extend to E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Bacteroides (an anaerobe)

Adult Simple Appendicitis

Antibiotic prophylaxis should be coordinated with surgical consult

Options:

Pediatric Simple Appendicitis

Options:

Complicated Appendicitis

Defined as perforation, abscess, or phlegmon

Options:

Cautious use should be applied to use of fluoroquinolones in complicated pediatric appendicitis due to the risk of tendon injury

Cholecystitis

Most often isolated organisms are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and anaerobes, especially Bacteroides fragilis

Uncomplicated

Pathogenicity of Enterococci remains unclear and specific coverage is not routinely suggested for community-acquired infections[1]

Complicated or Healthcare Associated

Examples of complication include severe sepsis or hemodynamic instability

  • Vancomycin 15-20mg/kg PLUS any of the following options

Options:

Clostridium Difficile

Mild/Moderate Infection

  • Vancomycin 125 mg PO four times daily for 10 days
  • Fidaxomicin 200 mg PO two times daily for 10 days
  • Metronidazole 500mg PO or IV four times daily for 10 days (third line therapy)

Serious Infection

Diverticulitis

Uncomplicated

Options:

Complicated

Options:

General Sick

Intra-Abdominal Sepsis/Peritonitis

Harbor-UCLA Santa Monica-UCLA Other
Primary
Allergy or prior exposure

Infectious Diarrhea

Campylobacter jejuni

Entamoeba Histolytica

Giardia lamblia

Microsporidium

Cryptosporidium

Salmonella (non typhoid)

  • Treatment is not recommended routinely but should be considered if:
  • Immunocompromised
  • Age<6 mo or >50yo
  • Has any prostheses
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Severe Atherosclerosis
  • Active Malignancy
  • Uremic

Options: Immunocompromised patients should have 14 days of therapy

Shigella

Treatment extended for 10 days if immunocompromised'

Vibrio Cholerae

Yersinia enterocolitica

Antibiotics are not required unless patient is immunocompromised or systemically ill

Peritoneal Dialysis Associated Peritonitis

Empiric Therapy (IP)

10- to 14-day course of intraperitoneal (IP) antibiotics that are administered by the patient on an outpatient basis or IV antibiotics and intraperitoneal for admitted patients
  • Vancomycin 30mg/kg loading followed by 0.6 mg/kg IP daily PLUS[4]
  • Ceftazidime 1g IP daily OR
  • Gentamycin 0.6mg/kg daily
  • Catheter removal/exchange is usually only done if IP antibiotics fail (fungal, pseudomonal), and should be done in consultation with a nephrologist[5]

Empiric Tharapy (IV)

Although IP antibiotics are preferred IV antibiotics can be considered with coordination with nephrology for dosing. Coverage should be the same as IP antibiotics [6][7]

Traveler's Diarrhea

Options for Adults:

Typhoid Fever

Oral therapy with Quinolone Susceptibility

Parenteral Therapy with Quinolone Susceptibility

Parenteral Therapy with Quinolone Resistance

if nalidixic acid resistant, assume fluoroquinolone resistant
OR
  • Cefixime 10-15 mg/kg IV q 12 hrs x 8 days

Oral Therapy with Quinolone Resistance

See Also

Antibiotics by diagnosis

For antibiotics by organism see Microbiology (Main)

References

  1. Ansaloni L, et al. 2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis. World Journal of Surgery. (2016) 11:25. DOI 10.1186/s13017-016-0082-5
  2. Balasubramanian I et al. Out-Patient Management of Mild or Uncomplicated Diverticulitis: A Systematic Review. Dig Surg. 2017;34(2):151-160.
  3. Wilkins T et al. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Diverticulitis. Am Fam Physician. 2013 May 1;87(9):612-620.
  4. Li PK, et al: Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2010 update. Perit Dial Int 2010; 30:393 Fulltext
  5. Akoh JA. Peritoneal dialysis associated infections: An update on diagnosis and management. World J Nephrol. 2012 Aug 6; 1(4): 106–122.
  6. Manley HJ, Bailie GR, Frye RF, McGoldrick MD. Intravenous vancomycin pharmacokinetics in automated peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 2001;21 :378-85
  7. Wong et al. Intravenous Antibiotics with Adjunctive Lavage in Refractory Peritonitis. Intravenous Antibiotics with Adjunctive Lavage in Refractory Peritonitis
  8. Hoge CW. et al. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:341–5
  9. Steffen R, et al. Traveler’s Diarrhea: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2015;313(1):71-80. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17006
  10. Sanders JW. et al. An observational clinic-based study of diarrheal illness in deployed United States military personnel in Thailand: presentation and outcome of Campylobacter infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:533–8
  11. Steffen R, et al. Traveler’s Diarrhea: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2015;313(1):71-80. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17006
  12. Steffen R, et al. Traveler’s Diarrhea: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2015;313(1):71-80. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17006
  13. DuPont HL. et al. Rifaximin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of traveler’s diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1807–15