Amniotic fluid embolus

Background

  • Maternal mortality rate ~80%
  • 85% of survivors have neurologic sequelae
  • Occurs in 2-8 per 100,000 deliveries[1]
    • Responsible for ~10% of maternal mortality in US

Risk Factors

  • Cesarean delivery
  • Advanced maternal age
  • Abnormal placental implantation
  • Uterine rupture
  • Eclampsia
  • Amniocentesis
  • Trauma

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Postpartum Emergencies

Evaluation

  • Diagnosis of exclusion

Management

  • Treat hypoxia (may require intubation)
  • Treat hypotension → Pressors / blood products
  • Avoid hypoperfusion → Place patient in left lateral decubitus position
  • Immediate delivery of fetus → Emergent c-section

Disposition

  • Admit

See Also

References

  1. Fong A, Chau CT, Pan D, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism: antepartum, intrapartum and demographic factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Jun 30. 1-6.