Difference between revisions of "Vaginal Bleeding (Non-Pregnant)"

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Revision as of 21:41, 19 February 2015

Background

  • Normal menstruation:
    • 28 +/- 7d cycles; 4d of bleeding

Vaginal Bleeding Definitions

  • Menorrhagia: >7 day (prolonged) or >80 mL/day (excessive) uterine bleeding at regular intervals
  • Metrorrhagia: irregular vaginal bleeding outside the normal cycle
  • Menometrorrhagia - Excessive irregular vaginal bleeding
  • Intermenstrual bleeding - variable amounts between regular menstrual periods
  • Midcycle spotting - spotting just before ovulation (due to decline in estrogen)
  • Postmenopausal bleeding - recurrence of bleeding after menopause
  • Polymenorrhea: Frequent and light bleeding
  • Postcoital bleeding: vaginal bleeding after intercourse, suggesting cervical pathology
  • Postmenopausal bleeding: Any bleeding that occurs >6 mo after cessation of menstruation
  • The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) introduced a new classification system known by the acronym PALM-COEIN
  • PALM: structural causes
    • Polyp (AUB-P)
    • Adenomyosis (AUB-A)
    • Leiomyoma (AUB-L)
    • Malignancy and hyperplasia (AUB-M)
  • COEIN: nonstructural causes
    • Coagulopathy (AUB-C)
    • Ovulatory dysfunction (AUB-O)
    • Endometrial (AUB-E)
    • Iatrogenic (AUB-I)
    • Not yet classified (AUB-N)

Diagnosis

  • Hemodynamically stable pt in ED must rule-out:
    • Pregnancy
    • Trauma
    • Bleeding dyscrasia
    • Infection
    • Retained foreign body
    • If ruled these out the refer for outpt w/u

Differential Diagnosis

Nonpregnant Vaginal Bleeding

Systemic Causes

  • Cirrhosis
  • Coagulopathy (Von Willebrand, ITP)
  • Group A strep vaginitis (prepubertal girls)
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Secondary anovulation

Reproductive Tract Causes

Work-Up

  1. Urine pregnancy
  2. Hb
  3. Coags (only if h/o or suspect coaulopathy)
  4. ?TSH,prolactin (only if suspect endocrine d/o)
  5. ?Pelvic u/s

Treatment

  • Gyn consult only if uncontrolled
  • Hormones
  • Give only if endocervical curettage/endometrial biopsy does not need to be performed (young patient) or has already been performed, as they may alter test results
    • Medroxyprogesterone
      • 150mg IM x 1 then 20mg PO Q8hrs x 3 days
      • In a trial of 48 patients all had cessation in 5 days.[1]
    • Estrogen IV/PO (similar efficacy)

Life Threatening

  • Give blood transfusion
    • O-negative blood if emergent
    • Establish good access
  • Temporize bleeding w/ foley balloon or kerlix soaked in saline and thrombin
  • Suture or silver nitrate if bleeding from trauma

Disposition

  • D/c home w/ OB/GYN f/u

Source

  1. Ammerman SR, Nelson AL. A new progestogen-only medical therapy for outpatient management of acute, abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013. 208(6):499.e1-e5.

See Also

Vaginal Bleeding (Main)