Difference between revisions of "Torsades de pointes"

(Common Causes)
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==Diagnosis==
 
==Diagnosis==
[[File:12leadTorsade.jpg|thumb|Torsades in 12-lead]]
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[[File:12leadTorsade.jpg|thumb|Classic torsades in 12-lead]]
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[[File:Torsades de Pointes TdP.png|thumb|12-lead ECG of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) in a 56-year-old white female with a potassium of 2.4 mmol/L and a magnesium of 1.6 mg/dL.]]
 
*[[ECG]]
 
*[[ECG]]
  

Revision as of 06:36, 25 February 2015

Background

  • Torsades de Pointes is a form of polymorphic VTach, where there is a gradual change in the amplitude and twisting of the QRS complexes around the isoelectric line
  • Associated with prolonged QT, which may be congenital or acquired.

Common Causes

POINTES mnemonic:

  • Phenothiazines
  • Other medications (ie TCAs)
  • Intracranial bleed
  • No known cause (idiopathic)
  • Type I anti-arrhythmics (quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide)
  • Electrolyte abnormalities (hypoK & hypoMag)
  • Syndrome of Prolonged QT (aka Long QT Syndrome)

Clinical Features

Diagnosis

Classic torsades in 12-lead
12-lead ECG of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) in a 56-year-old white female with a potassium of 2.4 mmol/L and a magnesium of 1.6 mg/dL.

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Increasing HR decreases QT interval

  1. Magnesium sulfate - decreases calcium influx
    • 1-2gm IV over 1-2 min, repeat in 5-15min; then 1-2gm/hr (3-10mg/min) gtt
      • Danger of hypermagnesemia → depressed neuromuscular function, so monitor closely
      • Supplement with K+
  2. Isoproterenol - Increases HR / AV conduction
    • 2-8 mcg/min
  3. Overdrive Pacing - Atrial > Ventricular pacing
    • Goal HR 90-120
  4. Defibrillation / synchronized cardioversion - Patient in extremis

See Also

Source