Revision as of 02:45, 14 July 2016 by ClaireLewis (talk | contribs) (Pharmacology)


  • Type: bactericidal antibiotic
  • Dosage Forms:
  • Common Trade Names:

Adult Dosing

  • Active TB: 10 mg/kg/day (in combination with isoniazid and pyrazinamide) PO or IV for 2 months; MAX, 600 mg/day; then 10 mg/kg/day (in combination with isoniazid) for 4 months or longer as needed
  • Inactive TB, HIV+: 600 mg PO daily for 4 months
  • Meningitis: 600 mg IV once daily (with vanc/cephalosporin)
  • Bartonellosis: 300 mg PO or IV q12h plus doxycycline
  • Brucellosis: 15-20 mg/kg/day PO/IV in 1 or 2 divided doses for at least 6 weeks in combination with a tetracycline; MAX 600 to 900 mg/day
  • Infective endocarditis: 300 mg IV or PO every 8 hours for a minimum of 6 weeks, in combination with appropriate antimicrobial therapy

Pediatric Dosing

Special Populations

  • Pregnancy Rating: C
  • Lactation: Infant risk minimal
  • Renal Dosing:
    • Adult
    • Pediatric
  • Hepatic Dosing
    • Adult
    • Pediatric


  • Allergy to class/drug
  • concomitant use with atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, rilpivirine or elvitegravir/cobicistat

Adverse Reactions


  • Agranulocytosis
  • DIC
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Nephrotoxicity


  • nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
  • headache, dizziness, fatigue, disequilibrium, weakness
  • pruritus, flushing
  • turns your excretions orange!


  • Half-life: 3-5hr
  • Metabolism: hepatic
  • Excretion:
  • Mechanism of Action: inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis

Antibiotic Sensitivities[1]

Group Organism Sensitivity
Gram Positive Strep. Group A, B, C, G S
Strep. Pneumoniae S
Viridans strep X1
Strep. anginosus gp X1
Enterococcus faecalis I
Enterococcus faecium R
Staph. Epidermidis S
C. jeikeium S
L. monocytogenes S
Gram Negatives N. gonorrhoeae X2
N. meningitidis S
Moraxella catarrhalis S
H. influenzae S
E. coli R
Klebsiella sp R
E. coli/Klebsiella ESBL+ R
E coli/Klebsiella KPC+ I
Enterobacter sp, AmpC neg R
Enterobacter sp, AmpC pos R
Serratia sp X1
Serratia marcescens R
Salmonella sp R
Shigella sp R
Proteus mirabilis X1
Proteus vulgaris R
Providencia sp. X1
Morganella sp. X1
Citrobacter freundii X1
Citrobacter diversus X1
Citrobacter sp. X1
Aeromonas sp X1
Acinetobacter sp. R
Pseudomonas aeruginosa R
Burkholderia cepacia R
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia X1
Yersinia enterocolitica X1
Francisella tularensis S
Brucella sp. S+'
Legionella sp. X1
Pasteurella multocida X1
Haemophilus ducreyi X1
Vibrio vulnificus X1
Misc Chlamydophila sp X2
Mycoplasm pneumoniae X1
Rickettsia sp X1
Mycobacterium avium X1
Anaerobes Actinomyces X1
Bacteroides fragilis X1
Prevotella melaninogenica X1
Clostridium difficile X1
Clostridium (not difficile) X1
Fusobacterium necrophorum X1
Peptostreptococcus sp. X1


  • S susceptible/sensitive (usually)
  • I intermediate (variably susceptible/resistant)
  • R resistant (or not effective clinically)
  • S+ synergistic with cell wall antibiotics
  • U sensitive for UTI only (non systemic infection)
  • X1 no data
  • X2 active in vitro, but not used clinically
  • X3 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for Group A strep pharyngitis or infections due to E. faecalis
  • X4 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for strep pneumonia

See Also


  1. Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2014