Difference between revisions of "Pneumonia (peds)"

(5yr - 18yr)
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== Background ==
+
{{Peds top}} [[pneumonia]]
 
+
==Background==
 
*Most common site of infection in neonates
 
*Most common site of infection in neonates
*Fever and tachypnea are Sensitive but not Specific
 
 
=== Causes ===
 
 
==== Neonatal ====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" align="left" rowspan="0" | Etiology
 
! valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" align="left" rowspan="0" | Clinical Presentation
 
! valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" align="left" rowspan="0" | Management Approach
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="3" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" |
 
Bacterial
 
 
[[Group B Streptococcus]] (most common), [[Escherichia coli]], [[Listeria monocytogenes]], [[Haemophilus influenzae]], [[S. pneumoniae]] [[Klebsiella]] species, [[Enterobacter]] aerogenes
 
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Fulminant illness w/ onset w/in 48hr of life, w/ infection likely acquired in utero from contaminated amniotic fluid environment.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Full evaluation for sepsis (blood and urine cultures, chest radiographs, and complete blood count). The blood culture results are typically negative. Two culture samples may increase diagnostic yield fourfold.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Respiratory distress, unstable temperature (high or low), irritability or lethargy, tachycardia and poor feeding may be present.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | A lumbar puncture should be done if there are no contraindications.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Hospitalization, supportive care (<small>O</small><sub>2</sub>), and parenteral antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin, adjusts as per culture and sensitivities when available).<br/>&nbsp;
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Nosocomial infections in premature infants (''Staphylococcus aureus'',''Pseudomonas aeruginosa'')&nbsp;
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Same as for common bacterial etiology.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Same as for common bacterial etiology.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="5" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | ''Chlamydia''&nbsp;
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Develops in 3%–16% of exposed neonates (in colonized mothers).
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Sepsis evaluation as indicated.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | CXR may show hyperinflation with interstitial infiltrates.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="3" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Usually occurs after 3 wk of age, accompanied by conjunctivitis in one half of cases. Often afebrile, tachypneic, with prominent "staccato" cough. Wheezing uncommon.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Definitive diagnosis by nasopharyngeal swab PCR or cultures.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Eosinophilia may be seen on peripheral blood count.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Treatment: macrolide (erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin).
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="6" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" |
 
''Bordetella pertussis''
 
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="6" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | In addition to pneumonia, may causes paroxysms of cough, ± cyanosis and post-tussive emesis in otherwise well-looking infant. Characteristic whoop is not present in neonates. Apnea may be the only symptom. Suspect when adult caregiver also has persistent cough.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Sepsis evaluation as indicated.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Diagnosis via nasopharyngeal swab for PCR and/or culture.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Lymphocytosis in peripheral blood count is nonspecific but supports the diagnosis.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Macrolides are efficient against&nbsp;''B. pertussis''&nbsp;but is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for infants <6 mo.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | No available data on efficacy of azithromycin or clarithromycin in infants <1 mo old, but case series show less adverse effects with azithromycin.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Neonates need to be admitted during treatment and monitored for severe adverse effects.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="6" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" |
 
''Mycobacterium tuberculosis''
 
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Half of infants born to actively infected mothers develop TB if not immunized or treated.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Sepsis evaluation as for bacterial pneumonia.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | CXR, culture of urine, gastric and tracheal aspirates.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="3" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | May be acquired via transplacental means, aspiration/ingestion of infected amniotic fluid, or postnatal airborne transmission.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Skin testing not sensitive in neonates.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Routine anti-TB treatment.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Supportive treatment as needed.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Often presents with nonspecific systemic symptoms with multi-organ involvement (fever, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, organomegaly).
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="6" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Viral pneumonia (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza, parainfluenza)
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Initial upper respiratory illness progressing to respiratory distress and feeding difficulty.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Sepsis evaluation as indicated.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="2" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Viral testing (direct antigen detection/PCR/cultures) of nasopharyngeal washings (swab).
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Hypoxia and apnea may be present.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" rowspan="3" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Often indistinguishable from bronchiolitis.
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Rate of concurrent bacterial infections in confirmed viral infection is low.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | CXR for significant respiratory distress.
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;"
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px;" | Supportive therapy; monitoring for apnea in young and premature infants.
 
|}
 
 
==== Infants and Children ====
 
*More likely to have viral cause
 
**Consider secondary bacterial pneumonia if URI progresses to lower tract symptoms
 
***Pneumococus, H. flu, staph, pertussis
 
**If age >5 consider mycoplasma (treat w/ macrolide)
 
  
 
===Bugs by Age Group===
 
===Bugs by Age Group===
Line 103: Line 8:
 
**[[Gram-negative bacilli]]
 
**[[Gram-negative bacilli]]
 
**[[Listeria monocytogenes]]
 
**[[Listeria monocytogenes]]
*1mo-3mo
+
*1-3 months
 
**[[Streptococcus pneumoniae]]  
 
**[[Streptococcus pneumoniae]]  
 
**[[Chlamydia trachomatis]]     
 
**[[Chlamydia trachomatis]]     
Line 109: Line 14:
 
**[[Bordetella pertussis]]   
 
**[[Bordetella pertussis]]   
 
**[[Staphylococcus aureus]]
 
**[[Staphylococcus aureus]]
*3mo-5yr
+
*3 months-5 years
 
**[[S. pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[S. pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[S. aureus]]   
 
**[[S. aureus]]   
Line 116: Line 21:
 
**[[C. trachomatis]]   
 
**[[C. trachomatis]]   
 
**[[Mycoplasma pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[Mycoplasma pneumoniae]]   
*5–18 y
+
*5–18 years
 
**[[M. pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[M. pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[S. pneumoniae]]   
 
**[[S. pneumoniae]]   
Line 123: Line 28:
 
**[[S. aureus]]
 
**[[S. aureus]]
  
== Diagnosis ==
+
==Clinical Features==
 +
''Fever and tachypnea are sensitive but not specific''
 +
*[[Fever]]
 +
*[[Cough]]
 +
**Productive cough is rarely seen before late childhood
 +
 
 +
==Differential Diagnosis==
 +
{{Pediatric fever DDX}}
 +
{{Pediatric SOB DDX}}
  
*Absence of tachypnea, resp distress, and rales/decr BS rules-out with 100% sp
+
==Evaluation==
**Productive cough is rarely seen before late childhood
+
*Absence of tachypnea, respiratory distress, and rales/decreased breath sounds rules-out with 100% sensitivity
 
*Imaging
 
*Imaging
**CXR is not the gold standard!
+
**[[CXR]] is not the gold standard!
**Cannot differentiate between viral and bact (but lobar infiltrate more often bacterial)
+
**Cannot differentiate between viral and bacterial (but lobar infiltrate more often bacterial)
 
**Consider for:
 
**Consider for:
***Age 0-3mo (part of w/u for sepsis)
+
***Age 0-3mo (as part of sepsis workup)
***<5yr w/ temp >102.2, WBC >20K and no clear source of infection
+
***<5yr with temperature >102.2, WBC >20K and no clear source of infection
 
***Ambiguous clinical findings
 
***Ambiguous clinical findings
***PNA that is prolonged or not responsive to abx
+
***Pneumonia that is prolonged or not responsive to antibiotics
*Consider rapid assays for RSV, influenza
+
*Consider rapid assays for [[RSV]], [[influenza]]
 
*Blood/nasal culture are low yield
 
*Blood/nasal culture are low yield
 +
**in prospective study, 91 blood cultures needed for one positive result for CAP; but in ICU one child had bacteremia for every 24 cultures obtained, one for every 12 with parapneumonic effusion <ref> Prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremic pneumonia in children.  Pediatrics. 2019 Jun 19. </ref>
 +
**consider for sicker ones, those with effusions
  
== Treatment<ref name="AAP">AAP. Management of Communty-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older than 3 Months of Age. Pediatrics. Vol 128 No 6 December 1, 2011.</ref>==
+
==Treatment<ref>Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2014</ref>==
===Newborn===
+
{{Pediatric pneumonia treatment}}
*Hospitalized
 
**[[Ampicillin]] (80-90mg/kg/day) + ([[gentamicin]] OR [[cefotaxime]])
 
*Outpatient
 
**Initial outpatient management not recommended
 
  
===1-3 Month===
+
==Disposition==
*Hospitalized
+
''All Children less than 2 months should be hospitalized<ref>AAP. Management of Communty-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older than 3 Months of Age. Pediatrics. Vol 128 No 6 December 1, 2011</ref>''
**Afebrile pneumonitis
+
===Consider Admission For===
***[[Erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]]
+
*Age: <2-3 months old
**Febrile pneumonia
+
*History of severe or relevant congenital disorders
***[[Cefuroxime]] ± ([[erythromycin]] IV or [[clarithromycin]] PO)
+
*Immune suppression (HIV, SCD, malignancy)
**Severe: choose one of
+
*Toxic appearance/respiratory distress
***[[Cefuroxime]] + ([[erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]])
+
*SpO2 <90-93%
***[[Cefotaxime]] + [[erythromycin]]
+
*Vomiting/dehydration
***[[Cloxacillin]] + [[clarithromycin]]
+
*Unstable social environment
*Outpatient
 
**Initial outpatient management not recommended
 
  
===3mo - 5 year===
+
==See Also==
*Hospitalized
+
*[[Pneumonia (Main)]]
**Mild
+
*[[Pediatric fever]]
***PO: [[Amoxicillin]] or [[Amoxicillin-clavulanate]]
 
***IV: [[Ampicillin]] or [[cefuroxime]]
 
**Moderate or severe
 
***([[Ampicillin]] or [[cefuroxime]]) + ([[erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]]) IV
 
*Outpatient
 
**[[Amoxicillin]] or [[amoxicillin-clavulanate]] or [[cefuroxime axetil]]
 
 
 
===5yr - 18yr===
 
*Hospitalized
 
**[[Ampicillin]] IV + ([[erythromycin]] OR [[clarithromycin]])
 
**Alternative
 
***[[Cefuroxime]] or [[amoxicillin-clavulanate]] or [[erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]] 
 
**Moderate to severe
 
***[[Cefuroxime]] + ([[erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]])
 
*Outpatient
 
**[[Erythromycin]] or [[clarithromycin]] or [[amoxicillin]] or [[amoxicillin-clavulanate]] or [[cefuroxime axetil]]
 
 
 
==Disposition==
 
*All Children less than 2 months should be hospitalized<ref name="AAP"></ref>
 
*Consider admission for:
 
**Age of birth to 3mo
 
**History of severe or relevant congenital disorders
 
**Immune suppression (HIV, SCD, malignancy)
 
**Toxic appearance/resp distress
 
**SpO2 <90-93%
 
  
==Source==
+
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
[[Category:Peds]]
+
[[Category:Pediatrics]]
 
[[Category:ID]]
 
[[Category:ID]]
 +
[[Category:Pulmonary]]

Latest revision as of 16:18, 1 July 2020

This page is for pediatric patients. For adult patients, see: pneumonia

Background

  • Most common site of infection in neonates

Bugs by Age Group

Clinical Features

Fever and tachypnea are sensitive but not specific

  • Fever
  • Cough
    • Productive cough is rarely seen before late childhood

Differential Diagnosis

Pediatric fever

Pediatric Shortness of Breath

Pulmonary/airway

Cardiac

Other diseases with abnormal respiration

Evaluation

  • Absence of tachypnea, respiratory distress, and rales/decreased breath sounds rules-out with 100% sensitivity
  • Imaging
    • CXR is not the gold standard!
    • Cannot differentiate between viral and bacterial (but lobar infiltrate more often bacterial)
    • Consider for:
      • Age 0-3mo (as part of sepsis workup)
      • <5yr with temperature >102.2, WBC >20K and no clear source of infection
      • Ambiguous clinical findings
      • Pneumonia that is prolonged or not responsive to antibiotics
  • Consider rapid assays for RSV, influenza
  • Blood/nasal culture are low yield
    • in prospective study, 91 blood cultures needed for one positive result for CAP; but in ICU one child had bacteremia for every 24 cultures obtained, one for every 12 with parapneumonic effusion [1]
    • consider for sicker ones, those with effusions

Treatment[2]

Newborn

1-3 Month

>3mo - 18 years

Disposition

All Children less than 2 months should be hospitalized[3]

Consider Admission For

  • Age: <2-3 months old
  • History of severe or relevant congenital disorders
  • Immune suppression (HIV, SCD, malignancy)
  • Toxic appearance/respiratory distress
  • SpO2 <90-93%
  • Vomiting/dehydration
  • Unstable social environment

See Also

References

  1. Prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremic pneumonia in children. Pediatrics. 2019 Jun 19.
  2. Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2014
  3. AAP. Management of Communty-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older than 3 Months of Age. Pediatrics. Vol 128 No 6 December 1, 2011