Difference between revisions of "Penetrating neck trauma"

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*GSW that crosses midline of 2x as likely to cause injuries to vital structures
 
*GSW that crosses midline of 2x as likely to cause injuries to vital structures
  
== Diagnosis ==
+
== Zones ==
=== Zones ===
 
 
*Zone 1: Clavicles to cricoid cartilage  
 
*Zone 1: Clavicles to cricoid cartilage  
 
**Carotid/vertebral arteries, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thoracic duct, spinal cord  
 
**Carotid/vertebral arteries, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thoracic duct, spinal cord  
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**Carotid/vertebral arteries, pharynx, spinal cord
 
**Carotid/vertebral arteries, pharynx, spinal cord
  
=== Signs/Symptoms ===
+
==Penetrating Trauma==
 +
=== Diagnosis ===
 +
==== Signs/Symptoms ====
 
*Diminished carotid pulse
 
*Diminished carotid pulse
 
*Expanding hematoma
 
*Expanding hematoma
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*Subcutaneous emphysema
 
*Subcutaneous emphysema
  
=== Imaging ===
+
==== Imaging ====
 
*CXR  
 
*CXR  
 
**Pneumo/hemothorax, pneumomediastinum  
 
**Pneumo/hemothorax, pneumomediastinum  
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***Useful if embolization or stent placement are anticipated or CT inconclusive
 
***Useful if embolization or stent placement are anticipated or CT inconclusive
  
==Management ==
+
===Management ===
===General===
+
====General====
 
*Airway  
 
*Airway  
 
**If integrity of larynx is in question cric/trach may be safer than intubation  
 
**If integrity of larynx is in question cric/trach may be safer than intubation  
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**Place in C-collar if:  
 
**Place in C-collar if:  
 
***ALOC, neuro deficits, or sig. blunt injury
 
***ALOC, neuro deficits, or sig. blunt injury
===By Zone===
+
====By Zone====
====Zone I====
+
=====Zone I=====
 
*Portable CXR
 
*Portable CXR
 
*Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
 
*Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
 
*Vascular control can be difficult; requires thoracic surgical approach
 
*Vascular control can be difficult; requires thoracic surgical approach
====Zone II====
+
=====Zone II=====
 
*Optimal management is controversial
 
*Optimal management is controversial
 
**Some advocate mandatory exploration, others favor selective operative management
 
**Some advocate mandatory exploration, others favor selective operative management
====Zone III====
+
=====Zone III=====
 
*Treat as cranial injuries
 
*Treat as cranial injuries
 
*Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
 
*Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
 
**Routine exploration of zone III is not indicated
 
**Routine exploration of zone III is not indicated
===By Structure===
+
====By Structure====
====Esophagus====
+
=====Esophagus=====
 
*Injuries are often initially asymptomatic
 
*Injuries are often initially asymptomatic
 
**If missed can lead to neck space infection, mediastinitis
 
**If missed can lead to neck space infection, mediastinitis
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**Missile trajectory places esophagus at risk for injury
 
**Missile trajectory places esophagus at risk for injury
 
**Persistent symptoms
 
**Persistent symptoms
====Laryngotracheal====
+
=====Laryngotracheal=====
 
*Suspect if:
 
*Suspect if:
 
**Air bubbling through wound
 
**Air bubbling through wound
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**Suspect laryngotracheal injury even if CT is negative
 
**Suspect laryngotracheal injury even if CT is negative
  
==Disposition==
+
===Disposition===
 
*If CT is negative may observe pt
 
*If CT is negative may observe pt
  

Revision as of 00:08, 17 July 2011

Background

  • Defined by platysma violation
    • Assume significant injury has occurred until proven otherwise
    • Never probe neck wounds beneath the platysma (may disrupt hemostasis)
  • Multiple structures are injured in 50%
    • Stab wound can enter in one zone and damage another
  • Missed esophageal injury is leading cause of delayed death
  • GSW that crosses midline of 2x as likely to cause injuries to vital structures

Zones

  • Zone 1: Clavicles to cricoid cartilage
    • Carotid/vertebral arteries, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thoracic duct, spinal cord
  • Zone 2: Cricoid cartilage to angle of mandible
    • Carotid/vertebral arteries, jugular vein, esophagus, trachea, larynx, spinal cord
  • Zone 3: Angle of mandible to base of skull
    • Carotid/vertebral arteries, pharynx, spinal cord

Penetrating Trauma

Diagnosis

Signs/Symptoms

  • Diminished carotid pulse
  • Expanding hematoma
  • Air/bubbling in wound
  • Hemoptysis
  • Hematemesis
  • Subcutaneous emphysema

Imaging

  • CXR
    • Pneumo/hemothorax, pneumomediastinum
    • CTA
      • 1st line
    • Angiography
      • Gold-standard
      • Useful if embolization or stent placement are anticipated or CT inconclusive

Management

General

  • Airway
    • If integrity of larynx is in question cric/trach may be safer than intubation
    • Consider intubation if:
      • Stridor
      • Hemoptysis
      • Subq emphysema
      • Expanding hematoma
  • Breathing
    • Minimize BVM (positive pressure > air into soft tissue plains)
  • Circulation
    • Place IV on contralateral side of injury
  • Disability
    • Neuro deficits may be 2/2 direct cord injury or cerebral ischemia 2/2 carotid injury
    • Place in C-collar if:
      • ALOC, neuro deficits, or sig. blunt injury

By Zone

Zone I
  • Portable CXR
  • Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
  • Vascular control can be difficult; requires thoracic surgical approach
Zone II
  • Optimal management is controversial
    • Some advocate mandatory exploration, others favor selective operative management
Zone III
  • Treat as cranial injuries
  • Evaluation is generally by selective, nonoperative management
    • Routine exploration of zone III is not indicated

By Structure

Esophagus
  • Injuries are often initially asymptomatic
    • If missed can lead to neck space infection, mediastinitis
  • Esophagoscopy or contrast esophagography indicated if:
    • CT is equivocal or abnormal
    • Missile trajectory places esophagus at risk for injury
    • Persistent symptoms
Laryngotracheal
  • Suspect if:
    • Air bubbling through wound
    • Dyspnea, stridor
    • Hemoptysis
    • Subcutaneous emphysema
  • Laryngoscopy is indicated if:
    • Suspect laryngotracheal injury even if CT is negative

Disposition

  • If CT is negative may observe pt

See Also

Source

  • Tintinalli's
  • UpToDate