Difference between revisions of "Nausea and vomiting"

m (Rossdonaldson1 moved page Nausea and Vomiting to Nausea and vomiting over redirect)
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[[File:Nausea_and_vomiting.png|thumb|Nausea and Vomiting Algorithm]]
 
[[File:Nausea_and_vomiting.png|thumb|Nausea and Vomiting Algorithm]]
 
==Work-Up==
 
==Work-Up==
#CBC
+
*CBC
#Chemistry
+
*Chemistry
#Urine pregnancy
+
*Urine pregnancy
#LFTs
+
*LFTs
#Lipase
+
*Lipase
#APAP, ASA, digoxin levels
+
*APAP, ASA, digoxin levels
#UA
+
*UA
#?Abd xray
+
*?Abd xray
#?CT
+
*?CT
#?US
+
*?US
  
 
== DDX by organ system ==
 
== DDX by organ system ==
 
===GI===
 
===GI===
#[[Peptic ulcer disease]]
+
*[[Peptic ulcer disease]]
#Obstruction
+
*Obstruction
##Adhesion
+
**Adhesion
##[[Small bowel obstruction]]/LBO
+
**[[Small bowel obstruction]]/LBO
##Gastric outlet obstruction
+
**Gastric outlet obstruction
#[[Pancreatitis]]
+
*[[Pancreatitis]]
#Gastroparesis
+
*Gastroparesis
#[[Appendicitis]]
+
*[[Appendicitis]]
#[[Cholecystitis]]
+
*[[Cholecystitis]]
#[[Cholangitis]]
+
*[[Cholangitis]]
#[[Acute Hepatitis]]
+
*[[Acute Hepatitis]]
#IBD
+
*IBD
#[[Intussusception]]
+
*[[Intussusception]]
#Tumor
+
*Tumor
#Strangulated hernia
+
*Strangulated hernia
#[[Volvulus]]
+
*[[Volvulus]]
#[[Mesenteric ischemia]]
+
*[[Mesenteric ischemia]]
#Esophageal disorders (e.g. achalasia)
+
*Esophageal disorders (e.g. achalasia)
#Functional disorders
+
*Functional disorders
##Psychogenic
+
**Psychogenic
##[[IBS]]
+
**[[IBS]]
#[[Pyloric Stenosis]]
+
*[[Pyloric Stenosis]]
  
 
===Neurologic===
 
===Neurologic===
#Head injury
+
*Head injury
#[[CVA]]
+
*[[CVA]]
#Pseudotumor
+
*Pseudotumor
#Hydrocephalus
+
*Hydrocephalus
#Mass lesion
+
*Mass lesion
#[[Meningitis]]
+
*[[Meningitis]]
#Migraines
+
*Migraines
#[[Labyrinthitis]]
+
*[[Labyrinthitis]]
#Meniere disease
+
*Meniere disease
#Motion sickness
+
*Motion sickness
#[[Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome]]
+
*[[Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome]]
  
 
===Infectious===
 
===Infectious===
#Bacterial toxins
+
*Bacterial toxins
#[[PNA]]
+
*[[PNA]]
#[[SBP]]
+
*[[SBP]]
#[[UTI]]
+
*[[UTI]]
#Viruses (adeno, norwalk, rota
+
*Viruses (adeno, norwalk, rota
 
===Drugs/Toxins===
 
===Drugs/Toxins===
#Toxic doses
+
*Toxic doses
##Digoxin
+
**Digoxin
##ASA
+
**ASA
##APAP
+
**APAP
#NSAIDs
+
*NSAIDs
#Opiates
+
*Opiates
#ETOH
+
*ETOH
#Anticonvulsants
+
*Anticonvulsants
#Abx
+
*Abx
#Antiarrhythmics
+
*Antiarrhythmics
#Toxins
+
*Toxins
##Organophosphates
+
**Organophosphates
##CO
+
**CO
##Ricin
+
**Ricin
 
===Endocrine===
 
===Endocrine===
#Pregnancy
+
*Pregnancy
#[[Hyponatremia]]
+
*[[Hyponatremia]]
#Adrenal insufficiency
+
*Adrenal insufficiency
#[[DKA]]
+
*[[DKA]]
#Thyroid/parathyroid disorders
+
*Thyroid/parathyroid disorders
#[[Uremia]]
+
*[[Uremia]]
  
 
===Miscellaneous===
 
===Miscellaneous===
#[[ACS]]
+
*[[ACS]]
#Gonadal torsion
+
*Gonadal torsion
#[[Nephrolithiasis]]
+
*[[Nephrolithiasis]]
#Pain
+
*Pain
#Acute glaucoma
+
*Acute glaucoma
#Anorexia/bulimia
+
*Anorexia/bulimia
#Depression
+
*Depression
  
 
==DDx by Severity==
 
==DDx by Severity==
 
=== Critical ===
 
=== Critical ===
#[[Esophageal Perforation|Boerhaave's]]
+
*[[Esophageal Perforation|Boerhaave's]]
#Ischemic bowel
+
*Ischemic bowel
#[[ICH]]
+
*[[ICH]]
#[[Meningitis]]
+
*[[Meningitis]]
#[[DKA]]
+
*[[DKA]]
#[[AMI]]
+
*[[AMI]]
#[[Sepsis]]
+
*[[Sepsis]]
  
 
=== Emergent ===
 
=== Emergent ===
#Gastric outlet obstruction
+
*Gastric outlet obstruction
#[[Pancreatitis]]
+
*[[Pancreatitis]]
#[[Cholecystitis]]
+
*[[Cholecystitis]]
#Bowel obstruction/ileus
+
*Bowel obstruction/ileus
#Ruptured viscus
+
*Ruptured viscus
#[[Appendicitis]]
+
*[[Appendicitis]]
#Peritonitis
+
*Peritonitis
#Migraine
+
*Migraine
#CNS tumor
+
*CNS tumor
#raised ICP
+
*raised ICP
#Adrenal insuffciency
+
*Adrenal insuffciency
#Hyperemesis gravidarum
+
*Hyperemesis gravidarum
#Tylenol
+
*Tylenol
#Digoxin
+
*Digoxin
#ASA
+
*ASA
#Theophyline
+
*Theophyline
#Gonadal torsion
+
*Gonadal torsion
#CO
+
*CO
#[[Electrolyte Disorders]]
+
*[[Electrolyte Disorders]]
 
===Nonemergent===
 
===Nonemergent===
#[[Gastritis]]
+
*[[Gastritis]]
#Gastroparesis
+
*Gastroparesis
#PUD
+
*PUD
#Gastroenteritis
+
*Gastroenteritis
#Biliary colic
+
*Biliary colic
#Hepatitis
+
*Hepatitis
#Thyroid
+
*Thyroid
#Pregnancy
+
*Pregnancy
#Erythromycin
+
*Erythromycin
#Ibuprofen
+
*Ibuprofen
#Chemotherapy
+
*Chemotherapy
#Narcotics/wdwl from
+
*Narcotics/wdwl from
#ETOH
+
*ETOH
#UTI
+
*UTI
#Renal colic
+
*Renal colic
#Motion sickness
+
*Motion sickness
#Labyrinthitis
+
*Labyrinthitis
  
 
== Complications ==
 
== Complications ==
#Hypovolemia
+
*Hypovolemia
#Metabolic alkalosis
+
*Metabolic alkalosis
#Hypokalemia
+
*Hypokalemia
#Mallory-Weiss (tear)
+
*Mallory-Weiss (tear)
#Boerhaave (rupture)
+
*Boerhaave (rupture)
#Aspiration
+
*Aspiration
  
 
== Peds ==
 
== Peds ==
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3" border="0" bgcolor="#666666" width="100%"
+
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3" border="0" bgcolor="*666666" width="100%"
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Newborn''' 
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Newborn''' 
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Esophageal stenosis/atresia, pyloric stenosis, intestinal stenosis/atresia, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, meconium ileus/plug, Hirschsprung disease, imperforate anus, enteric duplications
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Esophageal stenosis/atresia, pyloric stenosis, intestinal stenosis/atresia, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, meconium ileus/plug, Hirschsprung disease, imperforate anus, enteric duplications
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, kernicterus
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, kernicterus
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism (urea cycle, amino/organic acid, carbohydrate), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism (urea cycle, amino/organic acid, carbohydrate), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, necrotizing enterocolitis, milk allergy, GI perforation
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, necrotizing enterocolitis, milk allergy, GI perforation
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Infant (<12 mo)'''&nbsp;
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Infant (<12 mo)'''&nbsp;
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Pyloric stenosis, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, enteric duplications, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Pyloric stenosis, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, enteric duplications, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, pertussis, hepatitis
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, pertussis, hepatitis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Child (>12 mo)'''&nbsp;
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Child (>12 mo)'''&nbsp;
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | &nbsp;
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | &nbsp;
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum, acquired esophageal stricture, peptic ulcer disease, adhesions, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum, acquired esophageal stricture, peptic ulcer disease, adhesions, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, cerebral edema, postconcussive, migraine
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, cerebral edema, postconcussive, migraine
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, hepatitis, streptococcal pharyngitis
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, hepatitis, streptococcal pharyngitis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis, diabetes mellitus, Reye syndrome, porphyria
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis, diabetes mellitus, Reye syndrome, porphyria
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose, appendicitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, Crohn disease, pregnancy, psychogenic, cyclic vomiting syndrome
+
| valign="top" bgcolor="*ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose, appendicitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, Crohn disease, pregnancy, psychogenic, cyclic vomiting syndrome
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Source ==
+
== References ==
*Rosen
 
*Tintinalli
 
  
 
[[Category:GI]]
 
[[Category:GI]]
 
[[Category:Peds]]
 
[[Category:Peds]]

Revision as of 15:28, 23 June 2015

Background

Nausea and Vomiting Algorithm

Work-Up

  • CBC
  • Chemistry
  • Urine pregnancy
  • LFTs
  • Lipase
  • APAP, ASA, digoxin levels
  • UA
  • ?Abd xray
  • ?CT
  • ?US

DDX by organ system

GI

Neurologic

Infectious

  • Bacterial toxins
  • PNA
  • SBP
  • UTI
  • Viruses (adeno, norwalk, rota

Drugs/Toxins

  • Toxic doses
    • Digoxin
    • ASA
    • APAP
  • NSAIDs
  • Opiates
  • ETOH
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Abx
  • Antiarrhythmics
  • Toxins
    • Organophosphates
    • CO
    • Ricin

Endocrine

Miscellaneous

DDx by Severity

Critical

Emergent

Nonemergent

  • Gastritis
  • Gastroparesis
  • PUD
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Biliary colic
  • Hepatitis
  • Thyroid
  • Pregnancy
  • Erythromycin
  • Ibuprofen
  • Chemotherapy
  • Narcotics/wdwl from
  • ETOH
  • UTI
  • Renal colic
  • Motion sickness
  • Labyrinthitis

Complications

  • Hypovolemia
  • Metabolic alkalosis
  • Hypokalemia
  • Mallory-Weiss (tear)
  • Boerhaave (rupture)
  • Aspiration

Peds

Newborn 
Obstructive intestinal anomalies Esophageal stenosis/atresia, pyloric stenosis, intestinal stenosis/atresia, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, meconium ileus/plug, Hirschsprung disease, imperforate anus, enteric duplications
Neurologic Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, kernicterus
Renal Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
Infectious Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis
Metabolic/endocrine Inborn errors of metabolism (urea cycle, amino/organic acid, carbohydrate), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Miscellaneous Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, necrotizing enterocolitis, milk allergy, GI perforation
Infant (<12 mo) 
Obstructive intestinal anomalies Pyloric stenosis, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, enteric duplications, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum
Neurologic Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema
Renal Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
Infectious Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, pertussis, hepatitis
Metabolic/endocrine Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis
Miscellaneous Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose
Child (>12 mo)   
Obstructive intestinal anomalies Malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum, acquired esophageal stricture, peptic ulcer disease, adhesions, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Neurologic Intracranial bleed/mass, cerebral edema, postconcussive, migraine
Renal Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
Infectious Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, hepatitis, streptococcal pharyngitis
Metabolic/endocrine Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis, diabetes mellitus, Reye syndrome, porphyria
Miscellaneous Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose, appendicitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, Crohn disease, pregnancy, psychogenic, cyclic vomiting syndrome

References