Difference between revisions of "Nausea and vomiting"

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== Complications ==
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{{Adult top}} [[nausea and vomiting (peds)]].''
 +
==Background==
 +
[[File:Nausea_and_vomiting.png|thumb|Nausea and Vomiting Algorithm]]
  
#Hypovolemia
+
==Clinical Features==
#Metabolic alkalosis
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*Nausea and/or vomiting
#Hypokalemia
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*Additional features of underlying process
#Mallory-Weiss (tear)
 
#Boerhaave (rupture)
 
#Aspiration
 
  
== DDX ==
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==Differential Diagnosis==
 +
{{Nausea and vomiting DDX}}
  
=== Critical ===
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===By organ system===
 +
====GI====
 +
*[[Peptic ulcer disease]]
 +
*[[Bowel obstruction|Obstruction]]
 +
**Adhesion
 +
**[[Small bowel obstruction]]/LBO
 +
***[[SMA syndrome]]
 +
**Gastric outlet obstruction
 +
**[[Gastric volvulus]]
 +
**[[Bezoar]]
 +
*[[Pancreatitis]]
 +
*[[Gastroparesis]]
 +
*[[Appendicitis]]
 +
*[[Cholecystitis]]
 +
*[[Cholangitis]]
 +
*[[Acute Hepatitis]]
 +
*[[IBD]]
 +
*[[Intussusception]]
 +
*Tumor
 +
*Strangulated [[hernia]]
 +
*[[Volvulus]]
 +
*[[Mesenteric ischemia]]
 +
*Esophageal disorders (e.g. [[achalasia]])
 +
*Functional disorders
 +
**Psychogenic
 +
**[[IBS]]
 +
*[[Pyloric Stenosis]]
  
#Boerhaave
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====Neurologic====
#Ischemic bowel
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*[[Head injury]]
#ICH
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*[[CVA]]
#Meningitis
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*[[Idiopathic intracranial hypertension]]
#DKA
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*[[Hydrocephalus]]
#AMI
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*[[Intracranial mass|Mass lesion]]
#Sepsis
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*[[Meningitis]]
 +
*[[Migraine]]
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*[[Labyrinthitis]]
 +
*[[Meniere's disease]]
 +
*[[Motion sickness]]
 +
*[[Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome]]
  
=== Emergent ===
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====Infectious====
 +
*[[Bacteria]]l toxins
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*[[Pneumonia]]
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*[[SBP]]
 +
*[[UTI]]
 +
*Viruses ([[adenovirus]], [[norovirus]], [[rotavirus]])
  
#Gastric outlet obstruction
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====Drugs/Toxins====
#Pancreatitis
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*Toxic doses
#Cholecystitis
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**[[Digoxin toxicity]]
#Bowel obstruction/ileus
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**[[Aspirin toxicity]]
#Ruptured viscus
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**[[Acetaminophen toxicity]]
#Appendicitis
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**[[Ipecac toxicity]]
#Peritonitis
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*[[NSAIDs]]
#Migraine
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*[[Opioids]]
#CNS tumor
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*[[Alcohol]]
#raised ICP
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*[[Anticonvulsants]]
#Adrenal insuffciency
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*[[Antibiotics]]
#Hyperemesis gravidarum
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*[[Antiarrhythmics]]
#Tylenol
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*Toxins
#Digoxin
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**[[Organophosphates]]
#ASA
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**[[Carbon monoxide]]
#Theophyline
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**[[Ricin]]
#Gonadal torsion
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*[[Acute radiation syndrome]]
#CO
 
#Electrolyte disorder
 
  
=== Nonemergent ===
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====Endocrine====
 +
*[[Pregnancy]], [[hyperemesis gravidarum]]
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*[[Hyponatremia]]
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*[[Adrenal insufficiency]]
 +
*[[DKA]]
 +
*[[Thyroid]]/parathyroid disorders
 +
*[[Uremia]]
  
#Gastritis
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====Miscellaneous====
#Gastroparesis
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*[[ACS]]
#PUD
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*[[Ovarian torsion|ovarian]]/[[testicular torsion]]
#Gastroenteritis
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*[[Nephrolithiasis]]
#Biliary colic
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*Pain
#Hepatitis
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*[[Acute angle-closure glaucoma]]
#Thyroid
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*[[Anorexia nervosa]]/[[bulimia nervosa]]
#Pregnancy
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*[[Depression]]
#Erythromycin
 
#Ibuprofen
 
#Chemotherapy
 
#Narcotics/wdwl from
 
#ETOH
 
#UTI
 
#Renal colic
 
#Motion sickness
 
#Labyrinthitis
 
  
=== Peds ===
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==Evaluation==
 +
''Varies widely depending on clinical presentation''
 +
*CBC
 +
*Chemistry
 +
*Urine pregnancy
 +
*[[LFTs]]
 +
*Lipase
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*APAP, ASA, digoxin levels
 +
*[[Urinalysis]]
 +
*?[[Abdominal xray]]
 +
*?CT
 +
*?[[Ultrasound]]
  
 +
==Management==
 +
*Treat underlying pathology
 +
*Address [[electrolyte derangements]] and [[dehydration]] as needed
 +
*[[Antiemetics]]
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="3" border="0" bgcolor="#666666" width="100%"
+
==Disposition==
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
+
*Depends on cause
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Newborn''' 
+
*Most non-specific episodes of acute nausea and vomiting may be discharged, if:
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
+
**No emergent/urgent cause identified or suspected
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
+
**Patient tolerating fluids after treatment
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Esophageal stenosis/atresia, pyloric stenosis, intestinal stenosis/atresia, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, meconium ileus/plug, Hirschsprung disease, imperforate anus, enteric duplications
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, kernicterus
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism (urea cycle, amino/organic acid, carbohydrate), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, necrotizing enterocolitis, milk allergy, GI perforation
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" colspan="2" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Infant (<12 mo)'''&nbsp;
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Pyloric stenosis, malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, enteric duplications, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, pertussis, hepatitis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | '''Child (>12 mo)'''&nbsp;
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | &nbsp;
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Obstructive intestinal anomalies
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Malrotation ± volvulus, incarcerated hernia, Hirschsprung disease, intussusception, foreign body, bezoars, Meckel diverticulum, acquired esophageal stricture, peptic ulcer disease, adhesions, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Neurologic
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Intracranial bleed/mass, cerebral edema, postconcussive, migraine
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Renal
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Infectious
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Viral illness, gastroenteritis, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media, pneumonia, hepatitis, streptococcal pharyngitis
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Metabolic/endocrine
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Inborn errors of metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, renal tubular acidosis, diabetes mellitus, Reye syndrome, porphyria
 
|- class="font12" style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; "
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Miscellaneous
 
| valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff" class="font12" align="left" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17px; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 9px; margin-left: 0px; margin-right: 0px; " | Ileus, gastroesophageal reflux, post-tussive, peritonitis, drug overdose, appendicitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, Crohn disease, pregnancy, psychogenic, cyclic vomiting syndrome
 
|}
 
  
 +
==Complications==
 +
*[[Hypovolemia]]
 +
*[[Metabolic alkalosis]]
 +
*[[Hypokalemia]]
 +
*[[Mallory-Weiss]] (tear)
 +
*[[Boerhaave]] (rupture)
 +
*Aspiration
  
== Source ==
+
==See Also==
 +
*[[Nausea and vomiting (peds)]]
  
Rosen, Tintinalli
+
==External Links==
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
  
 
[[Category:GI]]
 
[[Category:GI]]
[[Category:Peds]]
+
[[Category:Symptoms]]

Latest revision as of 05:59, 14 May 2020

This page is for adult patients. For pediatric patients, see: nausea and vomiting (peds).

Background

Nausea and Vomiting Algorithm

Clinical Features

  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Additional features of underlying process

Differential Diagnosis

Nausea and vomiting

Critical

Emergent

Nonemergent

By organ system

GI

Neurologic

Infectious

Drugs/Toxins

Endocrine

Miscellaneous

Evaluation

Varies widely depending on clinical presentation

Management

Disposition

  • Depends on cause
  • Most non-specific episodes of acute nausea and vomiting may be discharged, if:
    • No emergent/urgent cause identified or suspected
    • Patient tolerating fluids after treatment

Complications

See Also

External Links

References