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  1. Infection of fungal hyphae in immunocompromised hosts
    1. DM
    2. HIV
    3. Neutropenic


  1. Most commonly affects paranasal sinuses (rhinocerebral mucormycosis)
  2. Pulmonary
  3. GI
  4. CNS

Clinical Features

Rhinocerebral: mimics acute bacterial sinusitis, however a much more rapid, extensive expansion of the fungus to the surrounding anatomy is classic

Can spread to orbits, oropharynx, nasopharynx, brain, nearby vasculature leading to:

  1. Vision changes
  2. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal ulceration or eschars
  3. Facial edema, pain
  4. Cranial nerve deficits
  5. Headache

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

  • Can be clinical diagnosis
  • CT scan of sinuses with IV contrast can assist with diagnosis


  • Emergent ENT consult for OR debridement (definitive treatment)
  • Start Amphotericin B 1mg/kg IV
  • Aggressive resuscitation, airway management, and supportive care while in ED.


Mortality 30-90%

See Also

External Links