Monoarticular arthritis

Revision as of 18:13, 11 June 2011 by Rossdonaldson1 (talk | contribs) (Peds)

Septic Arthritis

Gonococcal Arthritis

Healthy, young sexually active adults

Women > men

Suppurative monoarthritis (may be preceded by polyarthralgias)

Knee, wrist, ankle

Arthritis-Dermatitis Syndrome

-Triad: dermatitis, tenosynovitis, migratory polyarthritis (hematogenous spread of bacteria and immune complexes)

-Skin lesions: scattered small painless erythematous macules or petechiae-->pustular -->necrotic lesions

-Transient painful extensor tenosynovitis (writs, hands, ankles)

-Asymmtric polyarthralgia of extremity joints

DiagnosisCx everything - jt, mucosal surfaces, lesions

TreatmentCTX 1gIV qd OR

Cefotax 1g q8

Empirically treat Chlamydia

Nongonococcal Arthritis

Fulminant presentation (abrupt, swelling, toxicity and fever) unless elderly

-Hematogenous

-Contiguous

-Direct traumatic implantation

-Postop

CausesBacterial

Mycobacterial

Spirochete (lyme, syphilis)

Fungal

VIral (HIV, Hep B, Rubella, etc)

Postinfectious

DiagnosisSynovial fluid aspiration

Cx - if only one test, use BCx bottles (may enhance yield)

Grm stain - 80% positive in gram-positive infxn; less sens in gram-negative

Cell count with dif - >50,000-150,000; PMN > 90%

TreatmentPCN-ase resistant synthetic PCN:

Nafcillin 1-2g

Cefazolin 1-2g

AND

3rd gen ceph

OR

Vanc*

  • new evidence suggests significantly increased rate of MRSA septic arthritis
    • cell counts are as low as 20,000 in MRSA Cx + synovial fluid

Crystal-Induced Monoarthritis

  1. Gout
  2. Pseudogout

Traumatic

  1. Fracture
  2. ligamentous
  3. Overuse

Ischemic

  1. Avascular necrosis
  2. Decompression illness
  3. Spontaneous osteonecrosis
  4. pain in abscence of trauma
  5. femoral head, medial conyle of knee

Hemorrhagic

  1. Posttraumatic
    1. Joint aspiration if tense
    2. RICE
  2. Hemophilia
  3. Systemic anticoagulation

Neoplastic

  1. Mets
  2. Osteochondroma
  3. Osteoid osteoma
  4. Pigmented villonodular synovitis

Systemic Disease

  1. Remote infxn, infectious endocarditis
  2. Rheumatic fever
  3. Seronegative (no RF) spondyloarthropathies (AS, IBS, psoriatic, reactive or Reiter's)
  4. Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  5. Sarcoidosis, amyloidosis

Periarticular

these conditions mimic joint involvement...

  1. Cellulitis
  2. Tendonitis
  3. Bursitis

Pediatric

  1. Acute Transient Synovitis
    1. Children 3-10yo
    2. 1-3 wks after viral illness
    3. Self-limited
  2. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) (portly pubescent)
  3. Legg Calve Perthes Disease (young school-age children)

See Also

Pseudogout

Gout

Source

H-N