Difference between revisions of "Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 toxicity"

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==Background==
 
==Background==
* Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 used by US military (aircraft, tanks, other military vehicles)
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* Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 (JP-8) used by US military (aircraft, tanks, other military vehicles)
 
** Replaced JP-4 in 1992 as single fuel which was safer and reduced risk of fire/explosion
 
** Replaced JP-4 in 1992 as single fuel which was safer and reduced risk of fire/explosion
 
** Kerosene 99.8% by weight (benzene <0.05%)
 
** Kerosene 99.8% by weight (benzene <0.05%)
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** Low volatility
 
** Low volatility
 
** Additives include anti-icing, anti-static, anti-oxidation, anti-corrosive
 
** Additives include anti-icing, anti-static, anti-oxidation, anti-corrosive
* JP-8 mainly consists of hydrocarbon chains from C9-C12
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* JP-8 mainly consists of [[hydrocarbons|hydrocarbon]] chains from C9-C12
  
 
==Toxicology==
 
==Toxicology==
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* Oral - minor route of exposure usually because of eating or drinking contaminated water
 
* Oral - minor route of exposure usually because of eating or drinking contaminated water
 
* Dermal - minor route of exposure if soil/water contaminated. Potentially significant route of exposure for workers not using adequate protective clothing
 
* Dermal - minor route of exposure if soil/water contaminated. Potentially significant route of exposure for workers not using adequate protective clothing
 +
 
===Minimal Risk Levels===
 
===Minimal Risk Levels===
 
* No acute-duration inhalation MRL established
 
* No acute-duration inhalation MRL established
 
* MRL of 3 mg/kg/day has been derived for acute oral exposure
 
* MRL of 3 mg/kg/day has been derived for acute oral exposure
 +
 
===Health Effects===
 
===Health Effects===
 
* Studies have shown exposure can affect nervous system
 
* Studies have shown exposure can affect nervous system
 
* Target organs include lungs, liver, skin, immune and nervous systems
 
* Target organs include lungs, liver, skin, immune and nervous systems
 
* Carcinogenicity not classified by EPA or US Department of Health and Human Services
 
* Carcinogenicity not classified by EPA or US Department of Health and Human Services
 +
 
==Clinical Features==
 
==Clinical Features==
* Short term exposure - skin irritation (red, itchy, peeling), headache, fatigue, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, poor coordination, liver dysfunction, respiratory effects include painful breathing, feeling of suffocation
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* Short term exposure:
* Long term exposure lung and kidney damage
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**Skin irritation/[[rash]]
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**[[Headache]], [[fatigue]], [[dizziness]], difficulty concentrating, [[ataxia]]
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**[[hepatic failure|Liver dysfunction]]
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**Respiratory symptoms, including pleuritic [[chest pain]], [[SOB]], feeling of suffocation
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* Long term:
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**Above, plus pulmonary and [[renal failure|renal damage]]
 
* Taste and odor complaints related to tenacity of JP-8  
 
* Taste and odor complaints related to tenacity of JP-8  
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 +
==Differential Diagnosis==
  
 
==Evaluation==
 
==Evaluation==
* Based on history and physical examination findings
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* Clinical diagnosis, history and physical findings direct workup
  
 
==Management==
 
==Management==

Latest revision as of 20:00, 1 October 2019

Background

  • Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 (JP-8) used by US military (aircraft, tanks, other military vehicles)
    • Replaced JP-4 in 1992 as single fuel which was safer and reduced risk of fire/explosion
    • Kerosene 99.8% by weight (benzene <0.05%)
    • High flash point
    • Low volatility
    • Additives include anti-icing, anti-static, anti-oxidation, anti-corrosive
  • JP-8 mainly consists of hydrocarbon chains from C9-C12

Toxicology

Routes of Exposure

  • Inhalation - principal route of exposure for workers included in aircraft refueling activities
  • Oral - minor route of exposure usually because of eating or drinking contaminated water
  • Dermal - minor route of exposure if soil/water contaminated. Potentially significant route of exposure for workers not using adequate protective clothing

Minimal Risk Levels

  • No acute-duration inhalation MRL established
  • MRL of 3 mg/kg/day has been derived for acute oral exposure

Health Effects

  • Studies have shown exposure can affect nervous system
  • Target organs include lungs, liver, skin, immune and nervous systems
  • Carcinogenicity not classified by EPA or US Department of Health and Human Services

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Evaluation

  • Clinical diagnosis, history and physical findings direct workup

Management

Inhalation

  • Move to fresh air
  • Monitor for respiratory distress
  • Secure airway if needed

Dermal

  • Remove contaminated clothing
  • Wash exposed areas with soap and water for 10 to 15 minutes
  • Treat dermal irritation with topical corticosteroids

Disposition

  • Discharge home if asymptomatic after observation period 6-8 hours with normal vital signs and normal respiratory examination
  • Admit if clinical evidence of severe toxicity or respiratory distress

See Also

References