Deep venous thrombosis

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Background

Patients with superficial venous thromboses such as the long saphenous, short saphenous and dorsal venous arch increases the risk of developing a DVT, especially in patients who have a history of prior DVT.[1]

Clinical Spectrum of Venous thromboembolism

Only 40% of ambulatory ED patients with PE have concomitant DVT[2][3]

Anatomy

Leg Vein Anatomy

Blausen 0609 LegVeins.png

Significant risk of PE:

  • Common femoral vein
  • (Superficial) femoral vein
    • (Superficial) femoral vein is part of the deep system, not the superficial system as the name suggests!
  • Popliteal veins

Clinical Features

Physical Exam

  • Leg swelling with circumference >3cm more than unaffected side
  • Tenderness over calf muscle
  • Homan's sign - pain during dorsiflexion of foot (SN 60-96% and SP 20-72%)[4]

Differential Diagnosis

Calf pain

Evaluation

Modified Wells Score

  • Active cancer (<6 mo) - 1pt
  • Paralysis, paresis, or immob of extremity - 1pt
  • Bedridden >3 d b/c of symptoms (within 4 wk) - 1pt
  • TTP along deep venous system - 1pt
  • Entire leg swollen - 1pt
  • Unilateral calf swelling >3cm below tibial tuberosity - 1pt
  • Unilateral pitting edema - 1pt
  • Collateral superficial veins (not varicose) - 1pt
  • Previously documented DVT - 1pt
  • Alternative diagnosis as likely or more likely than DVT - (-)2pts
DVT of right leg
Large DVT of left leg

Probability

  • 0-1 = Low probability
  • ≥2 = High probability
Low Probability
High Probability

ACEP Clinical Algorithm[5]

ACEP DVT Clinical Algorithm

Management

Therapy Indications

treatment centers around anticoagulation although if signs of ischemia, thrombectomy is also an option Proximal DVT

  • If NO phlegmasia cerulea dolens:
  • If phlegmasia cerulea dolens:
    • Consider thrombolytics +/- thrombectomy
    • Anticoagulate with heparin/coumadin x 3 months
  • If anticoagulation contraindicated:

Distal DVT

  • Symptomatic
  • Asymptomatic with extension of thrombus toward proximal veins
  • Asymptomatic without extension
    • Discharge with compressive U/S q2 weeks

VTE in Pregnancy[6]

  • Therapeutic LMWH or unfractionated heparin anticoagulation dose in:
    • Antepartum outpatient with multiple prior VTEs or any VTE with high-risk thrombophilia until 6 weeks postpartum
    • Postpartum inpatient with prior unprovoked, estrogen-provoked VTE, or low-risk thrombophilia for duration of admission
  • Lower prophylactic anticoagulation dose in:
    • Antepartum outpatient with prior unprovoked, estrogen-provoked VTE, or low-risk thrombophilia until6 weeks postpartum
    • Patients admitted > 72 hrs, not at high risk for bleeding or imminent delivery
    • Resume 12 hours after C-section and removal of epidural / spinal needle in indicated patients
  • Halt anticoagulation if imminent delivery, C-section, epidural / spinal needle

Anticoagulation Options

Coumadin Regimen

  • Standard anticoagulation regimen
    • Enoxaparin 1mg/kg q12h 4-5 days
    • Coumadin
      • typical starting dose 5mg/day
      • give 7d supply with first dose in ED
  • GFR <30 and/or potentially requiring reversal
    • Unfractionated Heparin 80 units/kg bolus then 18 units/kg/hour
      • Check PTT after 6hr; adjust infusion to maintain PTT at 1.5-2.5x control
    • Coumadin as above

Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) Regimen

  • Standard
    • Start 15mg PO BID x 21 days, then 20mg PO daily (duration depending on risk factors)
    • No need for initial enoxaparin
  • Renal dosing
    • Check creatinine on all patients prior to initiation
    • CrCl <30 avoid use

Contraindications to anticoagulation

Disposition

Inpatient therapy for patients with ANY of the following:

  • Iliofemoral DVT
  • Phlegmasia cerulea dolens
  • High risk of bleeding on anticoagulation
  • Significant comorbidities
  • Symptoms of concurrent PE
  • Recent (within 2 weeks) stroke or transient ischemic attack
  • Severe renal dysfunction (GFR < 30)
  • History of heparin sensitivity or Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
  • Weight > 150kg

Outpatient therapy for patients with ALL of the following:

  • Ambulatory
  • Hemodynamically stable
  • Low risk of bleeding in patient
  • Absence of renal failure
  • Able to administer (or have administered) LMWH +/- coumadin with appropriate monitoring

Arrange for 2-3 day follow-up in anticoagulation clinic

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Litzendorf ME. Satiani B. Superficial Venous thrombosis:disease progression and evolving treatment approaches. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011(7). 569-575
  2. Righini M, Le GG, Aujesky D, et al. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by multidetector CT alone or combined with venous ultrasonography of the leg: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2008; 371(9621):1343-1352.
  3. Daniel KR, Jackson RE, Kline JA. Utility of the lower extremity venous ultrasound in the diagnosis and exclusion of pulmonary embolism in outpatients. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 35(6):547-554.
  4. Anand SS, et al. Does this patient have deep vein thrombosis? JAMA. 1998; 279(14):1094-9.
  5. Del Rios M et al. Focus on: Emergency Ultrasound For Deep Vein Thrombosis. ACEP News. March 2009. https://www.acep.org/clinical---practice-management/focus-on--emergency-ultrasound-for-deep-vein-thrombosis/.
  6. DʼAlton ME et al. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus bundle on venous thromboembolism. Obstet Gynecol 2016 Oct; 128:688.