- Enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with nucleocapsid
- Very common cause of upper respiratory infection, especially during fall and winter, and some diarrhea in pediatric patients
- Emerging pathogen for respiratory disease outbreaks
- Probably originated from bats, then spread to other mammalian hosts
- Incubation period: 2-4 days
- Upper respiratory symptoms
- GI symptoms - vomiting, diarrhea, Necrotizing enterocolitis (in neonates)
- Rhinovirus: most common cold virus. Causes around 40% colds.
- as opposed to Coronavirus, this causes cold in other seasons besides winter.
- Rhinovirus is NOT encapsulated as opposed to Coronavirus.
- respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
- PCR Testing
- Should be obtained on nasopharyngeal swab preferably one with synthetic fibers and plastic tip and under isolation
- Criteria for who to test is constantly evolving at this time. The CDC currently recommends clinicians to refer to local and/or institutional guidelines and test availability when deciding who should be tested.
- Laboratory Abnormalities
- There is no specific treatment for Coronavirus, since most infections spontaneously resolve.
- Supportive care, no specific treatment
- Rest, hydration, analgesia, antipyretics
- Hand hygiene to prevent spread
- The first vaccines produced against a coronavirus were developed during the COVID-19 pandemic
- Measures to reduce risk of transmission: fully wash hands, do not touch face without washing hands, avoid close contact with sick contacts.
- Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 7]. JAMA. 2020;10.1001/jama.2020.1585. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
- Wei-jie Guan, Ph.D., Zheng-yi Ni, M.D., Yu Hu, M.D., et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. The New England Journal Of Medicine website. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032 Published February 28, 2020. Accessed March 31, 2020