Difference between revisions of "Cold injuries"

(Trench Foot)
 
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==Background==
 
==Background==
 
*Frostbite occurs only when ambient temperatures are well below freezing
 
*Frostbite occurs only when ambient temperatures are well below freezing
*Nonfreezing cold injuries occur due to exposure to wet conditions when temper >freezing  
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*Nonfreezing cold injuries occur due to exposure to cold conditions above freezing  
  
==[[Trench Foot]]==
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==Differential Diagnosis==
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{{Cold injuries DDX}}
  
==Pernio (Chilblains)==
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==See Also==
===Background===
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*[[Therapeutic hypothermia]]
*Mild but uncomfortable inflammatory lesions of skin
 
**Caused by long-term intermittent exposure to damp, nonfreezing ambient temperatures
 
*Primarily a disease of women and children
 
  
===Clinical Features===
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==References==
*Hands, ears, lower legs, feet most commonly affected
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<references/>
*Symptoms
 
**Tingling, numbness, pruritus, burning paresthesias
 
**Cutaneous manifestations appear up to 12hr after acute exposure:
 
**Localized edema, erythema, cyanosis, plaques, nodules
 
***May progress in rare cases to ulcerations, vesicles, and bullae
 
**Rewarming may result in formation of tender blue nodules which may persist for days
 
  
===Treatment===
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[[Category:Environmental]]
*Affected skin should be rewarmed, gently bandaged, and elevated
 
*Nifedipine 20mg PO TID may be helpful as both prophylactic and therapeutic tx
 
*Topical corticosteroids and oral steroid burst have been shown to be useful
 
 
 
==Cold Panniculitis==
 
*Prolonged exposure to temp >freezing leads to mild necrosis of subcutaneous fat tissue
 
*Seen in children (popsicles) and women involved in equestrian activities
 
*Resolution may result in adipose fibrosis w/ cosmetic defects
 
**There is no treatment
 
 
 
==Cold Urticaria==
 
*Hypersensitivity to cold air or water which may lead to fatal anaphylaxis
 
*Treat similarly to urticarial lesions from other causes (i.e. antihistamines)
 
*Avoidance of cold is recommended
 
 
 
==Source==
 
Tintinalli
 
 
 
[[Category:Environ]]
 

Latest revision as of 00:24, 1 January 2017

Background

  • Frostbite occurs only when ambient temperatures are well below freezing
  • Nonfreezing cold injuries occur due to exposure to cold conditions above freezing

Differential Diagnosis

Cold injuries

See Also

References