Candidiasis

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Background

  • Candidiasis encompasses a wide array of local and invasive infections which vary extensively in clinical presentation and affect more than 250,000 patients worldwide per year
  • Local mucocutanoues infections include: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophagitis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and mastitis
  • Invasive infections include: Fungal UTI, Meningitis, Endocarditis, Empyema, Mediastinitis, Pericarditis

Risk Factors

  • Skin maceration
  • Immunosupression: HIV/AIDS, Corticosteroid use, Chemotherapy, Immunomodulators
  • Broad spectrum antibiotic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hematologic Malignancy
  • Central Venous Catheters use
  • Total Parenteral nutrition use
  • Neutropenia

Clinical Features

  • Oropharyngeal Candidiasis: psuedomembrane white plaques adhered to oral mucosa, tongue, or phaynx
  • Esophageal Candidiasis: AIDS definining illness, odynophagia, white esophageal plaques
  • Cutaneous Candidiasis: erythematous, macerated, intertriginous plaques with pustules
  • Chronic mucocutaneous Candidiasis
  • Candida Vulvovaginitis

Differential Diagnosis

Evaluation

  • Candidiasis is primarily diagnosed clinically
  • Confirmatory tests available by KOH preparation of skin scrapings revealing budding yeasts with pseudohyphae

Management

Disposition

See Also

External Links

References