Difference between revisions of "Calcium gluconate"

(Created page with "==General== *Type: *Dosage Forms: *Common Trade Names: ==Adult Dosing== ==Pediatric Dosing== ==Special Populations== *Pregnancy Rating: *L...")
 
(Pharmacology: edited excretion)
 
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==General==
 
==General==
*Type:  
+
*Type: Electrolyte
*Dosage Forms:
+
*Dosage Forms: injectable solution, tablet, capsule
 +
*Dosage Strenths: injectable solution: 100mg/mL; tablet: 50, 500, 650mg; capsule: 500mg
 +
*Routes of Administration: PO, IV
 
*Common Trade Names:  
 
*Common Trade Names:  
  
 
==Adult Dosing==
 
==Adult Dosing==
 
+
*Calcium Supplementation
 +
**19-50 years old: 1000mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
 +
**>50 years old: 1200mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
 +
**Pregnant or breastfeeding patient: 1000mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
 +
*[[Hypocalcemia]]
 +
**Mild (Calcium 1-1.2 mmol/L)
 +
***1-3 g/day PO in divided doses
 +
***1-2 g IV over 2 hours
 +
**Severe (Calcium < 1 mmol/L)
 +
***without seizure or tetany: 0.5mg/kg/hr IV, may be increased to 2mg/kg/hr
 +
***Hypocalcemic tetany:
 +
****100-300mg elemental calcium (~3g calcium gluconate) IV over 5-10 min
 +
****Followed by continuous IV infusion at 0.5mg/kg/hr
 +
*[[Calcium channel blocker toxicity]]: 3g IV (30-60mL of 10% soln)
 +
*[[Hyperkalemia]]: Give 10ml of a 10% solution over 10 mins
 
==Pediatric Dosing==
 
==Pediatric Dosing==
 
+
*Hypocalcemia
 +
**Children: 200 to 500 mg IV (slow injection)
 +
**Infants:  up to 200 mg IV (slow injection
 +
*Seizure due to hypocalcemia: 10% calcium gluconate IV 0.3 mL/kg over 5-10min
 
==Special Populations==
 
==Special Populations==
*[[Drug Ratings in Pregnancy|Pregnancy Rating]]:
+
*[[Drug Ratings in Pregnancy|Pregnancy Rating]]: C
*[[Lactation risk categories|Lactation risk]]:
+
*[[Lactation risk categories|Lactation risk]]: Use with caution
*Renal Dosing
+
*Renal Dosing:
**Adult
+
**CrCl less than 25 mL/min, base dosing on serum calcium levels
**Pediatric
+
**ESRD: if on HD, may need dose reduction
*Hepatic Dosing
+
*Hepatic Dosing: No adjustment
**Adult
 
**Pediatric
 
 
 
 
==Contraindications==
 
==Contraindications==
*Allergy to class/drug
+
*Hypersensitivity
 
+
*Hypercalcemia
 +
*Ventricular fibrillation
 +
*Digoxin toxicity (known or suspected)
 +
*Neonates receiving ceftriaxone sodium injection
 
==Adverse Reactions==
 
==Adverse Reactions==
 
===Serious===
 
===Serious===
 
+
*Bradycardia, vasodilation, hypotension, MI, cardiac arrest
 +
*Tissue necrosis (due to extravasation)
 +
*Urolithiasis
 +
*Prostate cancer
 
===Common===
 
===Common===
 +
*Constipation, abdominal bloating, flatulence
 +
*Headache
  
 
==Pharmacology==
 
==Pharmacology==
 
*Half-life:  
 
*Half-life:  
 
*Metabolism:  
 
*Metabolism:  
*Excretion:  
+
**Absorption requires Vitamin D
*Mechanism of Action:
+
**Absorption is increased with acidic condition; thus, administer 1-2 hr after meals
 +
**~45% protein bound (primarily to albumin)
 +
*Excretion: feces as unabsorbed calcium salt (80%), urine (20%)
 +
 
 +
==Mechanism of Action==
 +
*Bone mineral component; cofactor in enzymatic reactions, essential for neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and many signal transduction pathways.
  
 
==Comments==
 
==Comments==
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
+
*[[Calcium chloride]]
 +
*[[Hypocalcemia]]
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
[[Category:Drugs]]
+
[[Category:Pharmacology]]

Latest revision as of 00:13, 12 October 2017

General

  • Type: Electrolyte
  • Dosage Forms: injectable solution, tablet, capsule
  • Dosage Strenths: injectable solution: 100mg/mL; tablet: 50, 500, 650mg; capsule: 500mg
  • Routes of Administration: PO, IV
  • Common Trade Names:

Adult Dosing

  • Calcium Supplementation
    • 19-50 years old: 1000mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
    • >50 years old: 1200mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
    • Pregnant or breastfeeding patient: 1000mg/day PO (divided q8-12hr)
  • Hypocalcemia
    • Mild (Calcium 1-1.2 mmol/L)
      • 1-3 g/day PO in divided doses
      • 1-2 g IV over 2 hours
    • Severe (Calcium < 1 mmol/L)
      • without seizure or tetany: 0.5mg/kg/hr IV, may be increased to 2mg/kg/hr
      • Hypocalcemic tetany:
        • 100-300mg elemental calcium (~3g calcium gluconate) IV over 5-10 min
        • Followed by continuous IV infusion at 0.5mg/kg/hr
  • Calcium channel blocker toxicity: 3g IV (30-60mL of 10% soln)
  • Hyperkalemia: Give 10ml of a 10% solution over 10 mins

Pediatric Dosing

  • Hypocalcemia
    • Children: 200 to 500 mg IV (slow injection)
    • Infants: up to 200 mg IV (slow injection
  • Seizure due to hypocalcemia: 10% calcium gluconate IV 0.3 mL/kg over 5-10min

Special Populations

  • Pregnancy Rating: C
  • Lactation risk: Use with caution
  • Renal Dosing:
    • CrCl less than 25 mL/min, base dosing on serum calcium levels
    • ESRD: if on HD, may need dose reduction
  • Hepatic Dosing: No adjustment

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • Digoxin toxicity (known or suspected)
  • Neonates receiving ceftriaxone sodium injection

Adverse Reactions

Serious

  • Bradycardia, vasodilation, hypotension, MI, cardiac arrest
  • Tissue necrosis (due to extravasation)
  • Urolithiasis
  • Prostate cancer

Common

  • Constipation, abdominal bloating, flatulence
  • Headache

Pharmacology

  • Half-life:
  • Metabolism:
    • Absorption requires Vitamin D
    • Absorption is increased with acidic condition; thus, administer 1-2 hr after meals
    • ~45% protein bound (primarily to albumin)
  • Excretion: feces as unabsorbed calcium salt (80%), urine (20%)

Mechanism of Action

  • Bone mineral component; cofactor in enzymatic reactions, essential for neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and many signal transduction pathways.

Comments

See Also

References