AIDS dementia

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Background

  • Also referred to as HIV encephalopathy
  • Progressive disorder heralded by impairment of recent memory and other cognitive deficits
  • Occurs in 10-15% of HIV+ pts; 30% of pts w/ CD4 <100
  • Diagnosis of exclusion

Clinical Features

  • Can initially be confused with depression, anxiety disorders, or substance abuse
  • Changes in mental status
  • Aphasia
  • Motor abnormalities. Patients with an established diagnosis of AIDS dementia who develop progressive neurologic or psychologic signs or symptoms warrant further evaluation for systemic or CNS processes

Diagnosis

  • Head CT shows cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement
  • Associated w/ elevated CSF protein in 50-70% of cases

Source

Tintinalli