ACLS (Main)

Revision as of 04:37, 12 January 2012 by Rossdonaldson1 (talk | contribs) (Bradycardia (with Pulse))

2010 AHA Recommendation Changes

  • Routine use of cricoid pressure is NOT recommended
  • Airway adjunct is recommended while performing ventilation
  • Pulse/rhythm checks should only occur q2min
  • Most critical component is high-quality compressions
  • Atropine and cardiac pacing are NOT recommended for asystole/PEA

ECG Analysis

  1. Is the rhythm fast or slow?
  2. Are the QRS complexes wide or narrow?
  3. Is the rhythm regular or irregular?

BLS

Adult Cardiac Arrest

V-Fib and Pulseless V-Tach

  • Shock as quickly as possible and resume CPR immediately after shocking
    • Biphasic - 200J
    • Monophasic - 360 J
  • Give Epi 1mg if (shock + 2min of CPR) fails to convert the rhythm
  • Give antiarrhythmic if (2nd shock + 2min of CPR) again fails
    • 1st line: Amiodarone 300mg IVP w/ repeat dose of 150mg as indicated
    • 2nd line: Lidocaine 1-1.5 mg/kg then 0.5-0.75 mg/kg q5-10min
    • Magnesium 2g IV, followed by maintenance infusion
      • Only for polymorphic V-tach

Asystole and PEA

  • Give Epi 1mg q3-5min
  • Consider H's and T's
    • Hypovolemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Hydrogen ion
    • Hypo/hyperkalemia
    • Hypothermia
    • Tension pneumo
    • Tamponade
    • Toxins
    • Thrombosis, pulmonary
    • Thrombosis, coronary

Bradycardia (with Pulse)

Tachycardia (with Pulse)

3 questions:

  1. Is the pt in a sinus rhythm?
  2. Is the QRS wide or narrow?
  3. Is the rhythm regular or irregular?

Narrow Regular

  1. See also Tachycardia (Narrow)
  2. Sinus Tachycardia
    1. Treat underlying cause
  3. SVT
    1. Vagal maneuvers (convert up to 25%)
    2. Adenosine 6mg IVP (can follow with 12mg if initially fails)
      1. If adenosine fails initiate rate control with CCB or BB
        1. Diltiazem 15-20mg IV, followed by infusion of 5-15mg/hr
        2. Metoprolol 5mg IVP x 3 followed by 50mg PO
    3. Synchronized cardioversion (50-100J)

Narrow Irregular

  1. MAT
    1. Treat underlying cause (hypoK, hypomag)
  2. Sinus Tachycardia w/ frequent PACs
  3. A fib / A Flutter w/ variable conduction
    1. Rate control with:
      1. Dilt
      2. MTP (good in setting of ACS)
      3. Amiodarone (good in setting of hypotension, CHF)
      4. Digoxin (good in setting of CHF)
    2. Synchronized cardioversion (120-200 J)

Wide Regular

  • If unstable: shock (synchronized 100J)
    • Hhypotension, AMS, shock, ischemic chest discomfort, acute heart failure)
  • If stable:
    • Meds
      • Procainamide
        • 20-50mg/min; then maintenance infusion of 1mg/min x6hr
        • Tx until arrhythmia suppressed, QRS duration increases >50%, hypotension, 17m/kg given
        • Avoid if prolonged QT or CHF
      • Amiodarone
        • 150mg over 10min (repeat as needed); then maintenance infusion of 1mg/min x6hr
      • Adenosine
        • May be considered for diagnosis and treatment only if rhythm is regular and monomorphic
    • Synchronized cardioversion (100J)

Wide Irregular

  • DO NOT use AV nodal blockers
    • Can precipitate V-Fib
  1. A fib w/ preexcitation
    1. 1st line - Electric cardioversion
    2. 2nd line - Procainamide, amiodarone, or sotalol
  2. A fib w/ aberrancy
  3. Polymorphic V-Tach / Torsades
    1. Emergent defibrillation (NOT synchronized)
    2. Correct electrolyte abnormalities
      1. HypoK, hypoMag
    3. Stop prolonged QT meds

See Also

Source

  • AHA 2010 Guidelines for ACLS